J2 loose materials

Loose materials in unit J2

November 2010- C. Chaves Yates

Synopsis
Accumulations
Brickfall
Lenses
Layers
Topsoil

Synopsis

^accum2 Accumulations including natural accumulations w205
^bf Large brickfall that slopes from the southeast in J7 and J6 down across J2 to the northwest. v518
- Lenses w200
^accum1 Layers directly under topsoil v505
^ts Topsoil v7

Accumulations


      A total of 122 accumulations were recorded in J2. Accumulations are defined as layers abutting walls or structures and so with the large monumental access complete with staircase, walls and apron, it is no surprise to find many different layers or accumulations abutting the structures. Particularly because the area to the south of the monumental access was open and much lower, allowing a large space for accumulations to build-up.
     The accumulations of J2 are mostly natural accumulations. Ninety-two of the 391 excavated features, or 23% of features, are classifed as natural accumulations. The high percentage of natural accumulations is to be expected considering the portion of J2 south of the apron is part of the Plaza. Furthermore, once the brickfall built up the area was temporarily abandoned allowing for more natural accumulations to build up.
     The next most frequent accumulation type after Type D, is Type B. There are 16 of the accumulations. This accumulation is defined by its relation to other accumulations. As there are many accumulations in J2, it is therefore common to find Type B, with many accumulations layerd on top of each other.
Back to top

Brickfall

     During the Mittani period the southern area of J2 was covered by an expansive brickfall. The brickfall is composed of red and gray bricks. It is a "dirty" brickfall, in that it has many cultural inclusions, large pieces of pottery, human bones and other small finds.
Back to top

Lenses

     Lenses are similar to accumulations except they are usually smaller in overall size and do not abut walls or structures. In J2 there are a total of 66 lenses, some of each type with the overwhelming majority (72%) Lense Type D. This high percentage of natural deposits occur for the same reasons that there are a large number of Accumulation Type D in J2 (see above)
Back to top

Layers

     Layers are defined as having clear upper and lower boundaries. In J2 there are 30 features defined as layers. About 40% of these layers are those natural accumulations just below the topsoil (e.g. ^accum1). Other layers are very distinctive such as the bakaya, f133, associated with the second apron or the ashy layer, f59, in k43.
Back to top

Topsoil

     Topsoil (^ts) is a specific type of accumulation, the last build-up on the surface of the tell, usually attributed to modern times. These layers are often contaminated with modern materials and include higher proportions of plant remains, including growing plants. In J2, 5% of features are categorized as topsoil.
Back to top