J2 topic

Preliminary Strata Assignments from the Field

2005  – M. Happanen

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     At the end of the 2005 excavations M. Happanen detailed the basic outline and strata assignment of important J2 features. These were meant to be interpretive and subject to earlier revision.In 2011, these observations were used by cJC to assign features to the current strata system. The chart below utulizes the 2005 strata system which can be found in the MZ overall book.


- no title specified

f

df

k

Phase

Stratum

Substratum

I10 Stratigraphic Reasons

I11 Typological Reasons

I12 Qualifications/Exceptions

127

w

13-14

1

91

a

Built partly on top of f131 (1st apron) and thus is structurally later although not necessarily later in time. It is clearly built on a slope, which indicates that it sits on the glacis abutting the terrace wall f128. Accumulations dated to Phase 1 with pottery abut it.

  

128

w

23, 13

1

92

b

Accumulations dated to Phase 1 based on recovered pottery abut it.

 

Terrace wall. Must be structurally earlier than the apron (f131), pebble floors in k100 and the at least the three bottom steps visible in k100.

129

w

    

Sits on f130, oblique stone at the southern end mirrors that of f127, southern extent parallel to that of f127.

 

Similarities with f127 could make this contemporary with f127, but it is also possible that this feature dates to early 2nd millennium when the staircase underwent structural changes.

130

steps

 

1

92

b

Built after the terrace wall. Phase 1 pebble floor come up to it in k100.

 

This dating only applies to the lower part of the apron now visible in k100

131

apron

  

91

c

Built after the terrace wall and before the framing wall f127, which partly sits on the apron.

 

or 92b which would make it contemporary with the building of the steps.

135

ad

4

6b

12

b

Same in elevation as f136 in k3, f140 in k13, and f138 in k101.

 

Very compact and hard surface, which suggests water deposits.

136

ad

3

6b

12

b

Same in elevation as f135 in k4, f138 in k101 and f140 in k13.

 

Perhaps 12b. Very compact and hard surface, which suggests water deposits.

137

ad

13

6b

12

b

  

Very compact and hard, also contained sandy deposits that we have interpreted resulting from water deposits.

138

ad

101

6b

12

b

Same in elevation as f135 in k4, f136 in k4 and f140 in k13.

  

139

ad

4

6b

12

b

  

Very hard surface intermixed with sand, which I have taken as evidence for water deposits.

140

ad

13

6b

12

b

Partly at the same elevation as f166, which dated to the Mitanni period with pottery sherds.

  

141

ld

4

6b

12

c

  

Laminations. Top of f144 still visible.

142

fd

13

6b

12

c

Located above f127. Same elevation as f140, f138, f135, and f139

 

Small walking surface

143

ad

4

6b

12

c

  

The wall feature f144 and the deposits contained between it, f151, and the apron resulted in a terrain where this corner of k4 collected more material (pottery and pebbles) than the rest of k4 at this same elevation. This, however, no longer shows active use of the area. Top of f144 still visible

144

w

4

6a

13

a

Abutted on the south side by bricky debris and on the north side accumulation, which do not suggest very intensive use. In fact, first clear use feature (f150) went underneath this feature.

 

Raising of f232 in order to contain brickfall/bricky material a way from the front of the apron, no active use.

145

ad

4

6b

12

c

  

No more actively used as a sacral area, but still abuts f144, which built when the area was actively used and the top of which still visible.

146

co

100

07/06/12

    

Collapse into k100

147

stone

4

6b

12

b

Sit in f135 and f139, which both gradula build-up of the excavation area.

  

148

ld

4

6b

12

b,c

Pedestal under f147 and its components. Consists of f139 and f148.

  

149

ad

4

6a

13

a

  

Abuts f144, but does not contain indications of active use.

150

ad

4

6a

14

a

 

Phase 5 or Phase 6

Active use of the area in front of the steps

151

stone

4

6a

14

a

  

Used to screen off the area in front of the apron steps from the SW. Same construction date as f232.

152

ad

4

6b

12

 

Approximately same in elevation with hard and compact layers f158 and f164 in k5.

 

Perhaps 12c

153

ad

100

07/06/12

    

Collapse of the eastern wall of k100.

154

stone

3

6a

13

   

Large, flat stone resting on apron f131.

155

ad

4

6b

12

   

Perhaps 12b

156

ld

14

6b

12

b

  

Extremely hard surface alternating with softer ones, pebbles and sherds.

157

ad

5

7

    

Contaminated surface of k5, starting feature of MZ18 in this locus.

158

ld

5

6a

12

b

  

Very hard and compact deposit.

159

ld

14

6b

12

b

  

Hardening of the surface: alternating hard lenses with softer patches of sand. These are the water deposits characteristic of the higher elevations of J2 and still visible in the western section.

160

ld

5

07/06/12

  

Err:509

 

N baulk of k5

161

ld

14

6b

12

b

  

Very hard cement-like feature.

162

ld

14

6b

12

b-c

 

Most likely Khabur but potentially also Mitanni.

At the bottom levels of this feature, the top of the wall feature f224 was still visible. This feature, however, also consists of the hard water deposits discovered also in higher elevations.

163

ld

5

07/06/12

  

Err:509

 

A small ledge left at the southern edge of the unit for the stepped section. Later removed as the plans for the stepped sections changed.

164

ld

5

6b

12

b

Below f158, which a hard and compact water deposit.

  

165

ad

101

6b

12

 

Same as f138.

 

Pseudobaulk between k101 and k13.

166

ad

101

6b

12

c

Above the use deposit f174, but itself a use deposit.

Mitanni period pottery sherds.

 

167

ts

102

7

2

   

topsoil of k102 on the west side of k100.

168

ad

15

6b

12

a

  

Soft and dusty accumulation.

169

ad

102

7

3

 

Below topsoil f167

  

170

stone

100

     

collapsed stone.

171

a

103

6a

14

  

Mixed pottery ranging from the Mitanni period to Phase 1.

Same in elevation as f150 in k4. Also same as f174 in k104.

172

ad

101

6b

    

Pedestal under a tent pole at the NW corner of k101. Consists of f138 and f166

173

ad

100

07/06/12

    

Erosion and collapse

174

ad

101

6a

14

  

Mixed pottery dating from Mitanni/Khabur to LC3.

Same in elevation as f150 in k4. Also = f171 in k103.

175

stone

13

12

b

 

Sits in f137 and f140.

  

176

ad

13

12

b

 

0

 

Pedestal of stone f175

177

ld

5

6b

12

 

Top elevation approximately same as that of f164 (hard and compact accumulation in k5).

 

Perhaps 12c. contains the brick debris characteristic of areas south of screen walls in both k14 and k4. This deposit, however, higher up in elevation.

178

ld

5

6b

12

 

a

 

Perhaps 12c. Artificial feature. Consists of bricky material south of f144 and higher up than f144. Belongs to the bricky accumulation that characterizes southern k4,  those elevations of k5 that excavated this year, and southern k14.

179

ad

100

07/06/12

    

Erosion and collapse

180

ld

5

6b

12

   

Perhaps 12c. Artificial feature. Consists of bricky material south of f144 and higher up than f144. Belongs to the bricky accumulation that characterizes southern k4,  those elevations of k5 that excavated this year, and southern k14.

181

ld

4

6b

12

   

12a-b

182

ld

101

1

90

a

 

Phase 1 sherds.

Use deposit in k101 (k104)

183

ad

103

1

90

a

Same as f182 (k104), which dated to Phase 1.

  

184

ts

23

7

2

   

topsoil of k23.

185

stone

15

6b

12

a

  

Consists of several stones, all high in elevation

186

ad

15

6b

12

a

  

pedestal of stone

187

ad

23

7

2

   

Accumulation under the topsoil of k23.

188

a

4

6a

13

a

  

Gradual bricky build-up on the south side of f144.

189

a

4

6a

13

a

  

Gradual bricky build-up on the south side of f144.

190

ad

14

12-6b

  

Err:509

 

E baulk

191

stone

14

12

b

 

equal in elevation to f156

 

Floating stone on the E baulk

192

ad

100

   

Err:509

 

Pedestal of a collapsed stone.

193

ad

15

6b

12

 

Lower than f158 in k5 in elevation. I determined that f158 belonged to stratum 12b because of its nature. The dusty and soft consistency of f193 in turn implies stratum 12a.

 

Soft and dusty consistency

194

ad

100

07/06/12

    

Erosion and collapse

195

ad

15

6b

    

N baulk of k5

196

ad

100

07/06/12

    

Erosion and collapse

197

ld

14

6a

15

a

 

Mitanni in date.

One of the upper-most use layers to the north and abutting f224 in k14

198

ad

14

6a

15

c

Same elevation as f197, which dated to the Mitanni period by pottery sherds.

 

Contains ashy accumulations.

199

ash

14

6a

15

a

Above f197 in absolute elevation.

 

Dense ashy lense

200

ad

14

6a

15

a-b

 

Mitanni in date but curiously also contains Phase 4 and one Phase 3 sherd.

 

201

ld

23

7

3

    

202

ld

14

6a

12

b-c

roughly equal in elevation to f162 and f204. Thus consists of the two.

 

E baulk

203

ld

23

6b

11/12/12

   

Hard and compact, but contains bricky material.

204

ld

14

6b

12

b

  

Gradual buildup, top of the screen wall f224 still visible, bricky material.

205

pc

100

1

  

Abuts steps f130 below plaster floor f324.

Date unknown.

The top-most (no. 7) pebble floor.

206

ad

15

6a

12

a-b

  

E baulk

207

ad

4

6a

14

a

  

Gradual build-up of bricky material south of f232.

208

ad

4

6a

14

a

  

Gradual build-up of bricky material south of f232.

209

aa

100

1

90

a

 

Phase 1 sherds.

The top-most securely dated feature in k100

210

ad

4

6a

15

a

  

Gradual build-up of bricky material south of f224.

211

ad

4

6a

15

a

  

Gradual build-up of bricky material south of f224.

212

pt

100

06/01/12

    

This is a hole on one of the steps. Located on the step on which the doorjam of f129 rests.

213

fc

100

1

92

a

Located below f209, which dated to Phase 1 with pottery sherds.

 

Floor level.

214

fc

100

1

92

a

 

Phase 1.

Floor level.

215

pc

100

1

92

a

 

Phase 1.

Pebble floor no. 6

216

l

4

6a

14

a

Small use-area deposit abutting f232 on the south side, bonds with f207

 

Small use-area deposit abutting f232 on the south side, bonds with f207

217

ad

4

6a

15

a

Below f208, bonds with f218

 

bricky debris

218

ad

4

6a

15

a

Below f207, bonds with f216 and f217

 

bricky debris

219

ad

a4

6a-6b

    

N baulk.

220

ld

5

6b

12

 

Consists of 157, f158, and f164.

 

E baulk.

221

ad

100

07/06/12

    

Erosion and collapse

222

stone

5

6a

12

 

Stone in f220

 

Stone in f220

223

ad

100

1

92

a

Same elevation as f215, which dated to Phase 1 with pottery.

  

224

w

14

6a

15

a

Abutted by Mitanni layer f197.

 

Raising of f288

225

stone

100

07/06/12

    

Collapsed stone

226

ad

4

6a

13

a

Soil between stones of f144.

  

227

fd

13

1

90

a

Same elevation as f228 in k101, which dated to Phase 1 with pottery.

  

228

ad

101

1

90

a

 

Phase 1 sherds.

Use-deposit in k101 (k104)

229

ad

13

1

90

a

Same elevation as f228 in k101, which dated to Phase 1 with pottery.

  

230

ad

4

6a

13

a

Material used as foundation of f144 on top of f232.

 

Raising of f144 in order to contain bricky debris away from the front of the apron.

231

fd

103

1

90

a

Approximately the same elevation as f228 in k101, which dated to Phase 1 with pottery.

  

232

w

4

6a

14

a

  

This wall constructed to screen off the area in front of the steps for use and apart from the gradual build-up on the south side of it.

233

ad

15

6a-6b

    

N baulk.

234

fd

101

1

90

a

 

One Phase 1 sherd and one that can be either Phase 1 or 2.

Floor surface in k101 (k104)

235

ab

103

1

90

a

 

Phase 1 sherds.

 

236

ab

103

1

90

a

Same as f234 (k101), which dated to Phase 1

  

237

ad

100

07/01/12

    

Cleaning of the western wall of k100.

238

fb

103

1

90

a

Below f231 in elevation. f231 dated to Phase 1 with pottery.

  

239

ab

101

1

90

a

   

240

ab

103

1

90

a

Below f245, which dated to Phase 1 with pottery.

Mostly Phase 1 but one LC3 sherd.

 

241

ad

23

6

11

 

Abuts wall f128, top of f128 visible.

  

242

fd

23

6

11

   

Hard surface in slightly above f241

243

ts

24

7

2

   

Topsoil of f24.

244

lb

101

    

Mixed in date.

 

245

ab

103

1

90

a

 

Phase 1 sherds.

SE corner of k103

246

ad

103

1

90

a

 

Phase 1 sherds.

 

247

ad

104

1

90

a

Below f239 in depositional history

 

0

248

ad

104

1

90

a

Below f239 in depositional history

 

0

249

f

23

6

11

 

Abuts wall f128, top of f128 visible.

 

Hard, compact surface with pebbles and pottery sherds visible, not prepared floor but rather a walking surface. This feature does not extent into the eastern baulk so that it would show on the western wall of k13. I don't remember such accumulations from equivalent elevations in MZ17 excavation further to the east (in front of wall f128 in k13 or above f131 in high elevations.)

250

rh

103

1

90

a

Appears in f238

  

251

rh

103

1

90

 

Appears in f238

  

252

ad

24

7

3

   

Under topsoil in k24.

253

ad

104

1

90

a

Below f239 in elevation

Range from Ninevite V to Phase 1.

 

254

pt

23

11

    

Pit associated with f249

255

fi

23

11

    

Fill of pit f255.

256

ad

100

1

92

a

Associated with the three lower steps of f130, which must be structurally later than the terrace wall.

Phase 1 sherds

Accumulation on top of pebble floor no. 5

257

        

258

pc

100

1

92

a

Associated with the three lower steps of f130, which must be structurally later than the terrace wall.

Phase 1 sherds.

Pebble floor no.5

259

stone

15

12

a

    

260

ld

4

6a

15

a

  

Partly contemporary with f150 and earlier than f232. Contains bricky material, which indicates that the buildup of the area in front of the steps but south and southwest of the active use area that started to accumulate bricky material. This necessitated the building of f232.

261

ad

4

6b

13-14

 

Elevation roughly equal to f144 and f232.

 

E pseudobaulk left originally to protect k100 excavation from contamination.

262

stone

24

11

    

Stone in soft accumulation.

263

ld

24

     

Pedestal of stone f262.

264

stone

100

      

265

stone

4

      

266

pc

100

1

92

a

Associated with the three lower steps of f130, which must be structurally later than the terrace wall. Below a layer dated to Phase 1 with pottery.

  

267

pc

100

1

92

a

Associated with the three lower steps of f130, which must be structurally later than the terrace wall.

 

Pebble floor no.4

268

ad

100

1

   

?

Accumulation in the SE corner.

269

ad

14

6a

15

 

Accumulation between stones of wall f224.

  

270

ad

14

6a

15

   

Pedestal under fallen stones, which are same in elevation as f224 stones but seem to have originally belonged to f127.

271

ad

4

6a

14-15

   

Pedestal under stones f151

272

 

100

1

92

a

Associated with the three lower steps of f130, which must be structurally later than the terrace wall.

?

Accumulation between pebble floors no. 4 and 3.

273

ld

15

6a

12c/13a

   

soft, fine soil.

274

stone

24

11/12/12

     

275

ad

24

12-Nov

    

Pedestal under stone f274

276

 

100

1

92

a

Associated with the three lower steps of f130, which must be structurally later than the terrace wall.

One shape sherd dating to Phase 1.

Pebble floor no. 3

277

ad

5

6a

12c/13a

   

Bricky accumulation to the south of use area and screen wall in k14.

278

pt

4

?

?

   

Date undeterminable. Hole on stone of the apron. Most likely natural and therefore of no special interest.

279

fi

4

?

?

   

Fill of f278

280

pt

4

?

?

   

Date undeterminable. Hole on stone of the apron. Most likely natural and therefore of no special interest.

281

fi

4

?

?

   

fill of f280

282

pt

4

?

?

   

Date undeterminable. Hole on stone of the apron. Most likely natural and therefore of no special interest.

283

fi

4

?

?

   

fill of f282

284

pt

4

?

?

   

Date undeterminable. Hole on stone of the apron. Most likely natural and therefore of no special interest.

285

fi

4

?

?

   

fill of f284

286

ad

4

6a

15

a

  

Layering shows very active use as the seed layer and the presense of pits, for example, show.

287

pc

100

1

92

a

Associated with the three lower steps of f130, which must be structurally later than the terrace wall.

Two shape sherds dating to Phase 1.

Pebble floor no.2

288

w

4

6a

15

b

  

Cut into 3rd millennium deposits in k14 and the building of f288 and the associated glacis. Possibly in order to level the area west and southwest of the apron.

289

ad

4

6a

15

 

Top elevation falls within f200.

 

A strip of soil first left unexcavated abutting the north face of f288.

290

ad

14

6a

15

b

Use deposit abutting f288

  

291

ad

100

1

92

a

Below a layer dated to Phase 1.

?

Overlaying the pebble floor no. 1

292

pc

100

1

92

a

Below a layer dated to Phase 1.

 

Pebble floor no. 1

293

ad

14

6b15c-Phase 1

     

294

ad

100

1

92

a

Below a layer dated to Phase 1.

Several Phase 1 sherds, one LC3 sherd.

Overlaying the pebble floor no. 1

295

ld

14

6b15c-Phase 1

     

296

ad

14

6a

15

 

Starts from the level of f260

 

E pseudobaulk left to protect k100 excavations from contamination from k4 side.

297

ad

14

6b15c-Phase 1

     

298

pt

4

6a

15

a

Start from f286

 

Pit

299

fi

4

6a

15

a

Start from f286

 

Fill of f298

300

pt

4

6a

15

a

Start from f286

 

Pit

301

fi

4

6a

15

a

Start from f286

 

Fill of f300.

302

ad

105

1

92

 

Under f292, which is the last pebble floor exposed

 

Under f292, which is the last pebble floor exposed

303

ad

14

1

90

a

Immediately above a deposit dated to Phase 1 with pottery data.

 

Possible Phase 1 use deposit in k14.

304

aa

100

1

92

a

  

Accumulation in the SE corner.

305

ad

15

6b

13

a

Assignment tentative, based on elevation.

 

E baulk.

306

ly

14

1

90

a

 

Several shape sherds that all date to Phase 1.

Sloping cultural layer in k14.

307

ad

14

1

90

a

Under f306, which dated to Phase 1.

  

308

ad

14

1

90

a

Under f306, which dated to Phase 1.

  

309

ld

14

1

90

a

Under f306, which dated to Phase 1.

  

310

ly

4

6a

15

a

   

311

pt

4

6a

15

b

Starts from f310

 

Pit

312

fi

4

6a

15

b

Starts from f310

 

Fill of pit f310.

313

ld

24

07/11/12

    

N baulk

314

ld

24

07/11/12

    

E baulk.

315

ad

4

6a

15

b

Elevation such that f288 must have been showing.

 

No screen wall in front of the apron.

316

ad

4

6a

15

c

 

Mixed in date.

Cultural build-up in front of apron steps. Artificial feature.

317

stone

4

6a

15

 

Dating based on starting elevation.

  

318

ad

4

6a

14-15

 

Dated on the base of starting elevation.

 

Baulk.

319

glacis

14

6a

14-15

b

  

Glacis associated with f288.

320

stone

104

6a

14

a

Sits in f171

 

Stone at the corner of f127 and f128.

321

ad

104

6a

14

a

a

 

pedestal of stone f320.

322

ad

4

6a

15

 

Dating based on starting elevation.

 

Pedestal of stone f317.

323

ad

23

07/11/12

    

E baulk of k23

324

ab

4

6a

15

c

 

Mitanni in date.

Accumulation on top of floor features.

325

ab

14

6a

15

a-b

Abutting f288 to the south, on top of floor feature f332.

  

326

fa

4

6a

15

a

Plaster floor, associated both with the apron and with the steps (the high step). Its association with the steps suggests that this floor level could date to the 3rd millennium. Perhaps this is the highest 3rd millennium floor we have.

  

327

fd

4

6a

15

c

Floor surface on top of the plaster floor. f324 on top is Mitanni in date based on the mixed pottery recovered.

  

328

fd

4

6a

15

c

Floor surface on top of the plaster floor. f324 on top is Mitanni in date based on the mixed pottery recovered.

  

329

fd

4

6a

15

c

Floor surface on top of the plaster floor. f324 on top is Mitanni in date based on the mixed pottery recovered.

  

330

fd

4

6a

15

c

Floor surface on top of the plaster floor. f324 on top is Mitanni in date based on the mixed pottery recovered.

  

331

ad

14

6a

15

b-c

  

Artificial feature consists of several others.

332

fb

14

6a

15

c

Below the elevation of f288

 

Very hard and compact floor surface. Slopes to the south.