Special Lexica

June 2010 - G. Buccellati
June 2010 - M. Kelly-Buccellati
June 2010 - C.K. Kimbrough
June 2010 - R. Hauser
June 2010 - M. Stancavage
June 2010 - L. Ramos
[August 2022 - M. De Pietri]
A Digital Monograph
The home for this page is GRAMMAR

9.1 Introductory
9.2 Ceramic analysis (M. Kelly-Buccellati)
9.3 Glyptic analysis (M. Kelly-Buccellati)
9.4 A glyptic impressions on sealings (C.K. Kimbrough)
9.5 Figurines (R. Hauser)
9.6 Beads (M. Stancavage)
9.7 Physical Anthropology (L. Ramos)

9.1  Introductory

            It is possible to have a special lexicon without a corresponding special roster. Such is for instance the case with the lexicon for beads given below (9.6). The reason is that the lexical variants apply to variable categories already found in the Main Roster. If so, the variant is given in the Main Roster, but is preceded by a lexical prefix that identifies the special lexicon – thus, for instance, a bead might be qualified through the lexical attribute ‘Zbdrt’ following the Main Roster category K4 (or sh) for shape. In this example, ‘Zbd’ identifies the special lexicon, and ‘rt’ stands for round tabular, according to the lexical definition given below.

            As in the case of the Main Lexicon, the configuration of a lexicon contributes to an understanding of the structural make-up of given categories.

Back to top

9.2  Ceramic analysis (for special roster Zca)
– by M. Kelly- Buccellati


The full Ceramics Roster and Lexicon are given within the digital Ceramics book.

Back to top

9.3  Seals and seal impressions (for special roster Zsi)
– by M. Kelly-Buccellati

            Categories 6 and 7 (below) include regularly two additional digits after 6 or 7, such as 612 or 731. The second digit refers to the first composition, and the third to the sequential number of a given figure in that composition. Thus 612 refers to a major compositional elements which occurs as the second figure in the first composition, and 731 refers to a minor compositional element which occurs as the first figure in the third composition.

Text Box:  
Figure 1. Schematic rendering of registers on seal

            If two registers are present, then the second digit is replaced by the letter A for the first composition in the second register, B for the second composition in the second register, and so on (see schematic arrangement given in Fig. 1).

0 Universal Codes

These codes (in upper case) can be placed as variants in any variable slot.

NO                  None

OR                  Other

UC                  Unclear

UI                   Unidentified

UK                  Unknown

1 Documentation

            Codes in this category are used only for seals from sites other than Mozan, and are accordingly omitted here.

2  External characteristics

            Some of the codes in this category are used only for seals from sites other than Mozan, and are accordingly omitted here.

ob  Type of object

2ob:bu           Bulla

2ob:ds            Door Sealing

2ob:en           Envelope

2ob:fr             Fragment

2ob:mo          Modern Impression

2ob:tb            Tablet

2ob:tg            Tag

pc  Present condition

2pc:ac            Ancient Rolling            Complete

2pc:ap           Ancient Rolling            Partial

2pc:ch            Chipped

2pc:cr             Cracked

2pc:da           Damaged

2pc:er             Erased

2pc:re             Recut

2pc:ud           Undamged

2pc:un           Unfinished

2pc:wo           Worn

3  Physical characteristics

            Some of the codes in this category are used only for seals from sites other than Mozan, and are accordingly omitted here.

ma  Material

3ma:ag          Agate

3ma:al           Alabaster

3ma:am        Amethyst

3ma:ba          Basalt

3ma:br           Breccia

3ma:ca          Carnelian

3ma:cc          Calcite

3ma:ce          Ceramic

3ma:ch          Chalcedony

3ma:cl           Clay

3ma:di           Diorite

3ma:dl           Dolomite

3ma:do          Dolerite

3ma:fe           Felsite

3ma:fl            Flint

3ma:fr           Frit

3ma:ge          Geothite

3ma:gr           Granite

3ma:gs           Greenstone

3ma:gy          Gypsum

3ma:he          Hematite

3ma:ja           Jadeite

3ma:js           Jasper

3ma:la           Lapis Lazuli

3ma:li            Limonite

3ma:ls            Limestone

3ma:ma        Marble

3ma:mg         Magnesite

3ma:ob          Obsidian

3ma:on          Onyx

3ma:ox          Oxidized Iron Ore

3ma:po          Porphyry

3ma:qu          Quartz

3ma:ro           Rock Crystal

3ma:sa          Sandstone

3ma:se           Serpentine

3ma:sh          Shell

3ma:st           Steatite

se  secondary features

3se:tr              Traces of Cap

3se:un            Unperforated

si  size of cylinder seal

3si:di              Diameter

3si:he             Height


4  Inscription

            Some of the codes in this category are used only for seals from sites other than Mozan, and are accordingly omitted here.

ap  Absent or present

4ap:ab           Absent

4ap:pn           Present not translated

4ap:pr            Present

co  Condition of inscription

4co:er             Erased

4co:fr             Fragmentary Inscription

4co:ms           Missing in Break

4co:pa           Partial Rolling

4co:re             Readable

4co:rw            Rewritten

4co:un           Unreadable

ho  How inscription is written

4ho:01           One Column

4ho:02           Two Columns

4ho:03           Three Columns

4ho:04           Four Columns

4ho:05           Five Columns

4ho:06           Six Columns

4ho:in            Inverted

4ho:le             Less than Full Size Casement

4ho:sc            Scattered

4ho:si             Single Sign in Field

la  Language of text

4la:ak            Akkadian

4la:hu            Hurrian

4la:lg              Logographic (Sumerian or Akkadian)

4la:no            None (text only has personal names & so can't tell what

su                    Sumerian

lo Location of inscription

4lo:ab            Above or Below Secondary Element

4lo:ce             Center

4lo:ch             Center of Heraldic Composition

4lo:mf            In Midst of Figures (between two figures)

4lo:sc             Scattered (more than one sign in many locations)

4lo:te              Terminal

lp  Language of person’s name (onomastics)

4lp:ak            Akkadian

4lp:am           Amorite

4lp:hu            Hurrian

4lp:su             Sumerian

4lp:lg              Logographic

4lp:mx           Mixed-Akkadian & Sumerian Names

na  Names (prosopography)

4na:fa            Father

4na:gf            Goddess(es)

4na:gm          God(s)

4na:hu           Husband

4na:of            Seal Owner    female

4na:om          Seal Owner    male

4na:wi            Witness

ti  Titles (prosopography)

4ti:Pr              Priest

4ti:ro              Royal Official (Governor           etc.)

4ti:ry              Royal

4ti:sc              Scribe

4ti:se              Servant (human or divine)


5  Theme and overall composition

ba  Background

5ba:bl            Blank

5ba:ob           Objects Only in Relation to Individual Parts

5ba:sc            Scattered (more than one area)

5ba:wi            Wide Blank Space

ge  General composition of entire seal

5ge:an            Antithetical

5ge:do            Double Register

5ge:fr             Frieze (e.g. contest)

5ge:he            Heraldic

5ge:in             Inscription Predominant

5ge:li              Linear (unrelated themes) (4 figures)

5ge:si              Single Figure Composition

5ge:sy            Symmetrical Group(s) (2/3 figures, can be as many as 4 or 5)

gr  Groundline

5gr:sc             Center

5gr:sl              Left Side

5gr:sr              Right Side

5gr:st              Throughout

5gr:tr              Trace

5gr:un            Under Individual Figure(s)

nu  Number of compositions on entire seal

5nu:01           One

5nu:02           Two

5nu:03           Three

5nu:04           Four

5nu:05           Five

th  Theme of each composition

5th:be            Beseeching – Fervent appeal to a deity indicated through body position and gesture.

5th:br             Bringing Gifts

5th:da            Dancing

5th:di             Dining – Formal context in which eating or drinking are implied.

5th:dy            Dynastic

5th:fi              Fighting or Wrestling – Interacting in a physically aggressive manner with contact usually indicated.

5th:pe            Performing Ceremonial Act – A formal act connected with a ritual or set of prescribed religious behavior.

5th:po            Pouring

5th:wa           Walking

5th:wo           Worshiping

6  Major compositional elements

a2  Identification of figures: gender

6a2:fe            Female

6a2:ma          Male

aa  Identification of figures: Animal

6aa:bi            Bison

6aa:bu           Bull

6aa:ca           Caprid (sheep or goat family)

6aa:cb           Crossed bulls

6aa:cr            Crossed Lions

6aa:de           Deer/Stag

6aa:ga           Gazelle/Antelope

6aa:go           Goat/lbex

6aa:lc             Lion Cub

6aa:li              Lion/Lioness

6aa:of            Oryx(African)                              

6aa:or            Oryx(Arabian)

6aa:sc            Snake Coil

6aa:sh            Snake(Horizontal)

6aa:sv            Snake(Vertical)

6aa:wb          Water Buffalo

ad  Identification of figures: Deity

6ad:ad           Adad

6ad:bg           Beared God

6ad:bu           Bull-eared God

6ad:de           Deity with Flowing Vase

6ad:et            Etana

6ad:ga           Gate Attendant God

6ad:gc            God with Crook

6ad:gs            God With Scimitar

6ad:is             Ishtar

6ad:ma          Marduk

6ad:sg            Suppliant God

6ad:sh            Shamash

6ad:sn            Snake God

6ad:su            Suppliant Goddess

6ad:vg           Vegetation God/Goddess

6ad:wg           Water God

6ad:wi            Winged Deity

ah  Identification of figures: Human

6ah:ar            Archer

6ah:at            Attendant

6ah:bh           Bearded Hero

6ah:bo           Bowlegged Dwarf

6ah:bu           Butcher

6ah:ch           Child

6ah:co           Cook

6ah:da           Dancer

6ah:ki            King/God

6ah:nr            Nurse

6ah:nu           Nude Female

6ah:pi            Princess

6ah:pn           Prince

6ah:pr            Priest with Pail and Sprinkler

6ah:qu           Queen

6ah:ro            Royal Child

6ah:sh            Shepherd

6ah:tr             Triangle-head Man

6ah:va           Vanquished Body

6ah:wa          Warrior

6ah:wm         Warrior with Mace

6ah:wo          Worshiper

am  Identification of figures: Composite and mythological

6am:bl           Bird-lion

6am:bm        Bird-man

6am:bu          Bull-man

6am:cr           Cross Human-headed bull

6am:df          Double-faced God

6am:he          Nude Hero

6am:hu          Human-headeld Bull

6am:ld           Lion-demon

6am:lg           Lion-griffin

6am:tm         Triangle Man

6am:wg         Bull-winged Gate

6am:wi          Winged Dragon

as  Identification of figures: Standard

6as:cr             Crescent Standard

6as:cs             Cross Disc in Crescent Standard

6as:ct             Crescent Standard on Tripod Base

6as:dp            Double Headed Lion/Panther Standard

6as:gl             Globe Standard            One Globe

6as:g7            Globe Standard            Seven Globe

6as:lf              Lightning Fork Standard

6as:li              Lion Scimitar Standard

6as:ma          Mace Standard

6as:Po            Pointed Gatepost Standard

6as:s*            Star Standard

6as:sd            Star Disc on Crescent Standard

6as:sp            Spade Standard

at  Identification of figures: Tree and plants

6at:ba            Bare Conifer

6at:co            Conifer

6at:dp            Date Plam

6at:lf              Leafy

6at:pl             Plant

6at:tm            Tree Growing from Mountain

av  Identification of figures: Various

6av:bg           God-prowed Boat

6av:bh           High-prowed Boat

6av:cr            Crook

6av:do           Dog Balancing Crook

6av:fr             Frame

6av:ga           Gate

6av:gl             Lion/Lioness Gate

6av:gp           Gate-post

6av:gt            Trellis Gate

6av:gu           Guilloche

6av:12           Lightning Fork on Bull                Double Line

6av:13           Lightning Fork on Bull                Trident

6av:pl            Plow

6av:ru            Ruminant Balancing Crook(s)

6av:sp            Spear

6av:ss            Star-spade

6av:va           Vase with Palm Branch

6av:ve           Vegetation

6av:vs            Vessel with Straw

di  Distinctive physical chacretristics

6di:an            Antlers

6di:ba            Bald

6di:be             Bearded

6di:bo            Braid Ornament

6di:br             Braid

6di:cu             Curls

6di:do            Downturned Tail

6di:hb            Hair Styled in Bun

6di:hd            Hair Styled in Double Bun

6di:ho            Horns

6di:hs             Hair Styled in S-shaped Loop

6di:it               Ithyphallic

6di:lh              Long Hair

6di:ta             Talons/Claws

6di:up            Upturned Tail

6di:wi             Winged

dr  Dress

6dr:bl             Belt or Girdle

6dr:fm           Fringed or Bordered Mantel

6dr:fr              Fringed or Bordered Skirt

6dr:fs             Fringed or Bordered Shawl

6dr:gh            Garment with Bordered Hem

6dr:1o            Long Garment

6dr:sa             Sandal

6dr:se             Shoes with Upturned Toes

6dr:sh             Short Garment

6dr:sl              Slit Skirt

6dr:ss             Short Skirt

6dr:t2             Tiered Garment            Both Shoulders Covered

6dr:td             Tiered Garment            One Shoulder Covered

6dr:tp             Tiered Double Pleated Garment

6dr:tr              Tiered Garment/Skirt  Running Triangle Design                  

6dr:ts              Tiered Skirt

6dr:ve            Vertically Pleated        Long

6dr:vs             Vertically Pleated Garment       One Shoulder Covered

he  Head covering

6he:ch            Cap                one Pair of Horns

6he:co            Conical Hat

6he:cp            Cap                Rounded

6he:cv            Cap                Vertically Ridged

6he:dr            Hat Three Drillings

6he:fc            Flat Cap

6he:fe            Feathered Crown

6he:ho           Hat Rounded Top: One Pair of Horns

6he:h3           Horned Miter:  Several Pairs of Horns, Tips Meeting Above Ear

6he:h4           Horned Miter: Several Pairs of Horns,  View Unclear

6he:h5           Horned Miter:  Several Pairs of Horns Seen in Profile,  Tips Meeting Over Forehead

6he:h6           Horned Miter:  Several Pairs of Horns,  Frontal View

6he:ro            Rounded Hat               Rolled Brim

6he:ta            Tall Hat         Flat Topped

6he:tr             Tall Hat         Rounded Top      Wide Brim

je  Jewelry

6je:br             Bracelet

6je:co             Counterweight of Necklace

6je:ea             Earrings

6je:ne             Necklace

pa  Posture of figure: General

6pa:as            Ascending

6pa:be           Bend

6pa:co           Couchant

6pa:fo            Foot on Object or Animal: Standing

6pa:ho           Horizontally Placed

6pa:in            Inverted

6pa:k1           Kneeling on One Knee

6pa:k2           Kneeling on Two Knees

6pa:ra            Rampant

6pa:re            Reversed

6pa:se            Seated

6pa:sf            Standing on Forelegs

6pa:st             Standing

pb  Posture of figure: View shown: body

6pb:fr             Frontal View

6pb:pl            Profile, Left Side

6pb:pr            Profile, Right Side

6pb:sh            Shoulders Front View  Legs Profile

ph  Posture of figure: View shown: head

6ph:df            Double- faced

6ph:fr             Frontal View

6ph:pl            Profile, Left Side

6ph:pr            Profile, Right Side

6ph:se            Seen From Above

pl  Posture of figure: Left arm

6pl:ac             Arm Down    Elbow Bent          Forearm Crossing Body

6pl:ad            Arm Down    Extended Away from Body

6pl:ae             Arm Raised   Elbow up              Forearm Down

6pl:af             Arm Down    Elbow Bent          Forearm Extended

6pl:ar             Arm Raised   Elbow Bent          Forearm above Waist

6pl:at             Arm Down    Next to Body

6pl:au            Arm Raised Above Head

6pl:hc             Hands Clasped

6pl:hr             Hand Raised in Front of Face

pr  Posture of figure: Right arm

6pr:ab            Arm Behind Body       Elbow Up

6pr:ac            Arm Down    Elbow Bent          Forearm Crossing Body

6pr:ad            Arm Down    Extended Away from Body

6pr:ae            Arm Raised   Elbow Up             Forearm Down

6pr:af             Arm Down    Elbow Bent          Forearm Extended

6pr:ar             Arm Raised   Elbow Bent          Forearm Above Waist

6pr:at             Arm Down    Next to Body

6pr:au            Arm Raised Above Head

6pr:hc            Hand Clasped

6pr:hr             Hand Raised in Front of Face

ro  Role of figure in composition

6ro:at             Attending

6ro:be            Beseeching

6ro:bh            Being Held

6ro:bl             Being Led

6ro:bp            Being Presented

6ro:br             Bringing Gifts

6ro:bu            Butchering

6ro:bw           Being Worshiped

6ro:co            Cooking

6ro:da            Dancing

6ro:fi              Fighting With a Weapon

6ro:fo             Fighting Without a Weapon/Wrestling

6ro:ho            Holding

6ro:ma           Making Pots

6ro:pa            Participating In a Ritual

6ro:pr             Presenting Offering

6ro:si              Single Figure Not Interacting

6ro:td             Tending Child

6ro:wa           Walking

6ro:wi             Worshiping Inscription

6ro:wl             Worshiping and Leading

6ro:wo           Worshiping

6ro:wp           Worshiping and Presenting


7  Minor compositional elements: attributes

a&  Staffs and clubs

7a&:ba          Ball Staff

7a&:bi           Bird on Pole

7a&:bl           Ball

7a&:cr           Crook

7a&:Cs          Crescent Staff

7a&:ct           Crescent Staff              Pendant Flags      Tripod Base

7a&:do          Double-headed Panther/lion Club

7a&:fs           Frog on Staff

7a&:g5          Globe Staff   Five Globes

7a&:g7          Globe Staff   Seven Globes

7a&:g9          Globe Staff   Nine Globes

7a&:1i           Lion Scimitar

7a&:s*           Star Disc in Crescent Staff

7a&:sd           Sun Disc in Crescent Staff

7a&:sp           Spade-topped Staff

7a&:ss           Star Staff

7a&:st            Staff

aa  Animal

7aa:bi            Bird

7aa:bu           Bull

7aa:db           Dog Balancing Crook Stick or Pole

7aa:do           Dog

7aa:ea           Eagle

7aa:fi             Fish

7aa:fl             Fly/Bee/Insect

7aa:fo            Fox

7aa:fr             Frog

7aa:ga           Gazelle/Antelope

7aa:gi             Goat/Ibex

7aa:go           Goat/Ram Head on Stand

7aa:ha           Hare

7aa:ki            Kid/Lamb

7aa:li              Lion

7aa:mo          Mongoose/Monkey

7aa:ms          Monkey on Stool/Pole

7aa:os            Ostrich

7aa:po           Porcupine/Hedgehog

7aa:ru            Ruminant Balancing Crook(s)

7aa:sc            Scorpion

7aa:sn            Snake

7aa:to            Tortoise

ac  Composite or mythological beings

7ac:ab           Animated Boat

7ac:aw           Animated Wave

7ac:bl             Bull with Lightning Fork

7ac:bu           Bull-man

7ac:de            Demonic Head

7ac:dr            Dragon

7ac:fi             Fish with Human Head

7ac:go            Goat-fish

7ac:hu           Human-headed Bull

7ac:ld             Lion Demon

7ac:lf             Lion-headed Fish

7ac:lg             Lion-griffin

7ac:lr              Lion Head     Reptile Body

7ac:sn            Snake Dragon

7ac:wp           Winged Human in Flying Pose

af  Furniture

7af:bt             Bird-leg Table

7af:cg            Complex Geometric Supports

7af:ct             Cross-leg Table

7af:fo            Footrest

7af:pe            Pedestal         Single

7af:pd            Pedestal         Double

7af:pf            Pattern Stools with Footrest

7af:pl             Platform

7af:ps            Platform        Stepped

7af:pt             Patterned Stools

7af:se             Seat On Legs                Patterned

7af:sf             Stool with Footrest

7af:sg             Simple Geometric supports

7af:sl              Stool with Lion Decoration

7af:sp            Seat on Legs Plain

7af:sr             Seat                Rectangular Pattern

7af:su            Seat with Upturned Back

7af:ta             Table

7af:ve            Vertical-patterned Table

ah  Human

7ah:ar            Arm

7ah:bo           Bowlegged Dwarf

7ah:fa            Fallen Body(ies)

7ah:ha           Hand

7ah:he           Head

7ah:hn           Head of Nude Bearded Hero

7ah:ma          Man Kneeling on One Knee

7ah:nf            Nude Female

7ah:nm          Nude Male

7ah:pr            Priest with Pail and Sprinkler

7ah:ro            Robed Figure

7ah:wo          Worshiper

an  Natural elements

7an:br            Branch/Plant               

7an:ft             Flat-topped Mountain

7an:lo            Low Rounded Mound

7an:mt           Mountain

7an:na           Natural Elevation/Knoll

7an:ro            Rosette

7an:tr             Tree

7an:wa          Water Streams(s)

7an:wv          Waves

at  Tools and weapons

7at:ao            Arrows

7at:ar             Arrows in Quiver

7at:ax            Axe

7at:ba            Bow and Arrow

7at:bo            Bow

7at:cl              Club

7at:da            Dagger

7at:dr             Dart

7at:fl              Fly Whisk

7at:fo             Fork

7at:kn            Knife

7at:ma           Mace

7at:mu           Multiple Mace Head

7at:pl             Plow

7at:qu            Quiver

7at:sa             Saw

7at:sb             Serrated Blade

7at:sc             Scimitar

7at:sd             Spade

7at:sh             Shield

7at:sl              Sling

7at:sr              Spear

7at:ss             Star-spade

7at:st              Stick

7at:sw            Sword

7at:wh           Whip

av  Objects and other elements

7av:al            Altar/Stand

7av:ba           Basket

7av:cd           Cross Disc in Crescent

7av:cr            Crescent

7av:ct            Cooking Pot

7av:cu           Cup

7av:dr            Drilling(s)

7av:fe            Vertical Flute

7av:fl             Flowing Sprinkler

7av:fo            Flat Oval Object

7av:fv            Flowing Vase

7av:gu           Guilloche

7av:li              Lightning Fork

7av:lm           Leg Meat

7av:lu            Lute

7av:ly            Lyre

7av:om          Omega

7av:pa           Pail

7av:ra            Rays

7av:re            Rein

7av:ri             Ring

7av:rn            Rain

7av:ro            Rod

7av:rp            Rope

7av:s*            Star

7av:sd            Star Disc in Crescent

7av:sp            Sprinkler

7av:su            Sun Disc in Crescent

7av:ta            Tambourine

7av:vb           Bucket-shaped Vessel

7av:ve           Vessel/Vase

7av:vf            Vessel with Flowing Liquid

7av:vh           Vessel with handle

7av:vl            Vessel with Leaves                     

la  Location of attributes

71a:fl             Figure with One Foot On

71a:f2            Figure with Two Feet On

71a:fh            Figure Holding

71a:fk            Figure Kneeling On

71a:fs            Figure Seated On                        

71a:fw           Fiqure Wearing

71a:pf            Placed in front of

po  Posture of animal attributes

7po:be           Being Held

7po:cr            Crouching

7po:da           Dangling

7po:in            Inverted

7po:ra            Rampant

7po:re            Recumbent

7po:rv            Reversed

7po:se            Seated on Hind Legs

7po:st             Standing


8  Minor compositional elements: Filler motifs

lc  Location: In composition

8lc:01             In Composition 1

8lc:02             In Composition 2

8lc:03             In Composition 3

8lc:12             Between Composition 1 and 2

8lc:23             Between Composition 2 and 3

8lc:34             Between Composition 3 and 4

8lc:te              Terminal

lf  Location: Horizontal

81f:01            Before Figure 1

81f:12            Between Figures 1 and 2

81f:23            Between Figures 2 and 3

81f:34            Between Figures 3 and 4

81f:45            Between Figures 4 and 5

81f:te             Terminal

lv  Location: Vertical

8lv:lo              Lower

8lv:mi            Middle

8lv:un            Under Inscription

8lv:up            Upper

9  Secondary motifs

de  Description

9de:2a           Two animals one above the other

9de:2b           Two bullmen facing central staff

9de:2d           Two dancers

9de:2f            Two facing figures

9de:2i             Two identical human figures back to back

9de:2k           Two figures kneeling

9de:2s            Two facing seated sphinx

9de:bo           Bowlegged dwarf

9de:bs            Bull standing

9de:bu           Bull reclining(with front leg up)

9de:c2            Crossed lions between two rampant goats/ibex

9de:co            Cow suckling calf

9de:cr             Crossed lions

9de:do           Dog

9de:ec            Enthroned figure with                 crook

9de:en            Enthroned figure

9de:gd            Goat seated

9de:gf            Goatfish

9de:gl             Goat between lions

9de:gr             Griffin attacking horned animal

9de:gt             Goat

9de:gu            Guilloche

9de:la             Lion and seated goat

9de:lc             Lion crouching

9de:ld             Lion demon holding goat

9de:le             Lion-headed eagle

9de:lg             Lion griffin

9de:ly             Lyre playor and singer

9de:mf           Male figure before nude female

9de:mg          Man on one knee attacked by lion-griffin

9de:ml           Man on one knee attacked by lion

9de:nf            Nude female

9de:nh           Nude hero

9de:nm          Nude male/worshiper

9de:pf            Priest facing ascending god

9de:pl             Plant

9de:pr            Priest

9de:ri              Rider on horse

9de:sc            Scorpion

9de:sh            Sheep facing mongoose

lv  Location

91v:lo            Lower

91v:mi           Middle

91v:ov           Over Inscription

91v:un           Under Inscription

91v:up           Upper


Back to top

9.4  Aglyptic impressions on sealings (for special roster Zai)
 – by C. K. Kimbrough


            This lexicon has been established by Christine K. Kimbrough, and is quoted here from her notes. The codes refer to the special roster described above, 18.4.


Universal variant

u                      unclear.


Variants for variable ZaiK1 spin

s                      s‑spun, meaning that the thread was spun in a counter‑clockwise direction. When the thread or cord is viewed, the fibers appear to run from upper left to lower right, like the central bar of the letter s.

u                      unclear. When the direction of spin is not apparent due to the poor state of preservation of the impression or because the evidence for the direction of spin is contradictory or inconclusive, unclear will be used.

z                      z‑spun, meaning that the thread is spun in a clockwise direction.  When the thread or cord is viewed, the fibers or twists appear to run from upper right to lower left, like the central bar of the letter z.


Variants for variable ZaiK2 angle

numbers        (indicating the number of degrees but without the word degree)


Variants for variable Za1K3 (thread1) and ZaiK4 (thread2)

numbers        (indicating centimeters)


Variants for variable Za1K5 (twist)

numbers        indicating total twists

+                      a plus sign may be included after the number of twists to indicate additional partial or unclear twist impressions


Variants for variable Za1K6 (weave)

-                       a descriptive term refers to the type of weave


Variants for variable Za1K7 (hole diameter)

numbers        (indicating millimeters)

i                       incomplete



Back to top

9.5  Figurines (for special roster Zfg)
 – by R. Hauser


Back to top

9.6  Beads (lexical prefix Zbd)
– by M. Stancavage


Back to top

9.7  Physical anthropology (lexical prefix Zpa)
– by L. Ramos


Universal codes:


04        unknown

05        other

06        left

07        right

08        distal

09        proximal

10        medial

11        lateral

12        anterior

13        posterior

14        ventral

15        dorsal

16        palmar

17        shaft (diaphysis)

18        epiphyses

19        left

20        right

21        inferior

22        superior


Zpa1: Identification


hs         human skeleton articulated

hi         human bones isolated


Zpa2: Skeletal Analysis


Ma       Male

Fe        Female

Sk        skull

Pv        Pelvis

fh         femoral head diameter


Ft         Fetal (before birth)

If         Infant (0-3 years)

Ao       Adolescent (12-20)

Ad       Adult (20-35)

Ma       Middle Adult (35-50)

Oa       Old Adult (50+)


bs         Bass 1995

mc       McKern and Stewart 1957

kg        Krogman 1962

pr         Pearson 1917-19

tg         Trotter and Gleser 1952

sw        Schwartz 1995

fr         Ferembach et al 1980

lh         Loth and Henneberg 1996

ki         Krogman and Iscan 1986

ph        Phenice 1969

sb         Suchey and Brooks 1990

lj          Lovejoy et al 1985

ml        Meindl and Lovejoy 1985

mi        Miles 1962

tr          Trotter 1970

fn         Feldesman et al 1990

hp        Hoppa 1992

gw       Gowland 1998

sm        Smith 1991

mf        Moorrees, Fanning, and Hunt 1963

by        Byers et al 1989


Zpa3 Trauma


bf         blunt force

cm       compression fracture

fr         fracture

sf         sharp force

ds        dislocation

ad        artificial deformation

te         trephination

am       amputation


Zpa4 Pathology


os         osteomyelitis

pr         periostitis

tb         tuberculosis

tr          treponema

ph        porotic hyperstosis

rk         rickets

ot         osteoarthritis of spine

ob        osteoarthritis of joints

cr         carious lesion, dental

eh        enamel hypoplasia

pd        peridontal disease

ta         tooth abscess


Zpa5 Muscular-skeletal markers and stress


pm       pectoralis major

tm        teres major

dt         deltoid

su         supinator

ra         biceps brachii

gt         greater trochanter, gluteus min and medius

lt          lesser trochanter, iliopsoas tendon and psoas major

la         linea aspera, vastus muscle and adductors

pt         patella, tendon of quadriceps femoris

tt          tibial tuberosity, quadriceps femoris

pp        tibia popliteal line

at         calcaneal tuber,achilles tendon

3t         presence of third trochanter, gluteus maximus

bb        brachialis

cc         costoclavicular ligament

sl          spiral line femor, vastus medialis



Zpa6    Inventory


00        absent

01        <25% present

02        25-75% present

03        >75% present


Zpa7 Preservation

gd        good->75% cortical bone present

fr         Fair-25-75% cortical bone present

pr         poor-<25% cortical bone present


Zpa8 Burial Type


sm        simple pit

mp       multiple pit

sb         simple built tomb

mb       multiple built tomb

sj          simple jar

mj        multiple jar

ot         other


Body position


su         supine

sf         semi-flexed

fx         flexed

ss         sharply flexed