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e–LIBRARY \ BIBLIOGRAPHY \ References \ 911m
kept current by M.–C. Tremouille and M. De Pietri (2018–).
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Bibliography: general interest

     Titles are listed by author, with keywords indicating the category into which the title fits. Keywords are given to the right of the title, and brief comments are occasionally added after the titles.
     Some titles are included here to provide a general background to the history and archaeology of Syro–Mesopotamia, others are included because they are cited within the website.


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Agnew, Neville
2001 “Methodology, Conservation Criteria and Performance Evaluation for Archaeological Site Shelters,”
Conservation Management of Archaeological Sites 5, 7–18.

     A classic and fundamental formulation of principles to be followed in the use of shelters to protect archaeological sites. Dealing exclusively with broad base shelters, it assumes that implementation takes place only after excavations have been completed, rather than concurrently, in which case it is important to articulate the conservation needs for an architect who come in, extrinsically, from the outside (p.7f.).
     Five criteria are spelled out (p.8), which are prioritized in order of importance (see also p.9):
  1. effective protection
  2. "in harmony with the context of the site and the landscape"
  3. serve well the "interpretive/display function"
  4. provisions for adequate maintenance
  5. monitoring based on clear "qualitative and quantitative indicators".
     The author then provides examples where the decision to use shelters proved to be the wrong one, showing how wrong initial decisions may develop a negative multiplier effect (p.13). In the process, other criteria emerge, such as the need to involve all the stakeholders from the beginning (p.13) and the need for adequate security (p.14).
     It is a singular fact that shelters have escaped the normal validation routine of planning, testing and monitoring, for a variety of reasons: “Often there is a naïveté when it comes to designing and constructing shelters which translates into a self–deception that the shelter will function well. Perhaps this arises from a natural enthusiasm for the project, the opportunity to create the shelter, and the lack of perceived need for review and critique" (p.14). The almost total lack of research on shelters, in contrast with other types of conservation, is probably "due to the fact that shelters are invariably constructed in response to an immediate need as a once–only enterprise” (p.15).
     While sophisticated monitoring is desirable, one should not discount simpler evaluation approaces: a “'hard' assessment is clearly the most important, and convincing, but 'soft' assessment, based on subjective judgments, are also valuable and should not be overlooked” (p. 18).
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cited 1, 2
conservation
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Agnew, Neville and Janet Bridgland
2006 Of the Past, for the Future: Integrating Archaeology and Conservation.
Proceedings of the Conservation Theme at the 5th World Archaeological Congress, Washington, D.C., 22–26 June 2003.
Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute.
Pagina Web

      These proceedings deal with many topics about conservation, considered as “a core value for most archaeological societies. It is highlighted in their codes of ethics, statements of mission, and governance. In recognition of this, the World Archaeological Congress, with the Getty Conservation Institute and a consortium of other conservation organizations, brought together scholars working throughout the globe to discuss vital issues that affect archaeological heritage today”.
      The volume is divided into ten parts: 1) Plenary Presentations; 2) Innovative Approaches to Policy & Management of Archaeological Sites; 3) Conserving Archaeological Sites: New Approaches and Technique; 4) Finding Common Ground: The Role of Stakeholders in Decision Making; 5) Issues at World Heritage Sites; 6) Archaeology and Tourism: A Viable Partnership?; 7) Challenges in Conserving Archaeological Collections; 8) Preserving the Cultural Heritage of Iraq and Afghanistan; 9) Archaeology and Conservation in China Today; 10) Sharing Resources and Experience: Managing Archaeological & Rock Art Sites in Southern Africa.
      Specifically, pp. 73–81 reports a paper by G. Buccellati [Conservation qua Archaeology at Tell Mozan/Urkesh], regarding the experimental system of covering designed for the conservation and preservation of the structures of the royal palace of Urkesh.

      Note. The cover illustrates the localized shelter system of the Royal Palace AP at Urkesh.
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cited 1, 2
conservation
site presentation
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Agnew, Neville and Martha Demas
2004 “Monitoring through Replication. Design and Evaluation of the Monitoring Reburial at the Laetoli Trackway Site,”
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites, pp. 295–304.
Pagina Web

      This contribution aims to answer to a basic methodological question: “How is it possible to monitor the condition of a site or artefact after it has been reburied?” (p. 295).
      In 1995, on the remote site of Laetoli in Tanzania, the archaeologist decided to create a replica reburial close to the site. This replica provided a ‘window’ on the condition of the trackway and a series of samples of different materials were placed in the trench to provide an understanding of the burial environment. The trench itself, with triangular recesses cut into the floor to determine the mechanical stability of the tuff, was lined with root–inhibiting Biobarrier© geotextile and then reburied.
      After two years, the excavation team decided to re–excavate part of the trench, and they realized that the covering system worked well and only some troubles on the preservation of some wood samples occurred. This can be for sure considered as an advantage.
      On the other hand: “The disadvantage of replication lies in not being able to reproduce exactly the features and environment of the trackway. The closer the approximation, the higher the level of confidence. Inference and extrapolation is necessary in any form of monitoring except direct re–excavation and even this method, unless undertaken over the majority of the site, requires extrapolation from what is examined to what is not examined” (p. 303).
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Akrawi, Aysar
2006 “NGO and Government Collaboration in Archaeological Site Management: The Case of Petra in Jordan,”
in Agnew & Bridgland 2006, pp. 29–34.

     The Petra National Trust is an NGO that supervises a large Archaeological Park (265 km2) and an even larger protected area (900 km2). The main difficulties that had to be overcome, in the formative period between 1968 and 2000, related to the interaction among different governmental bodies.
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Amiet, Pierre
1966 “Il y a 5000 ans les Elamites inventaient l'écriture,”
Archéologia 12, 16–23.

     The first identification of clay tokens (to which Amiet refers with the Latin word calculi) as the forerunners of writing. This particular corpus was found in Susa (Amiet refers to the finds of Uruk as well), and Amiet develops, briefly but pointedly (pp. 20–22), the argument that the gathering of the tokens within clay balls, and the authentication of the whole obtained by rolling a seal on the outer surface (hence the Latin term bulla), served as the springboard for the invention of writing.
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Anati, Emmanuel
1988 Origini dell'arte e della concettualità.
Di fronte e attraverso, Vol. 218.
Milano: Jaca Book [pp. 200].
     An in–depth presentation of the theory and methodology of the interpretation of rock art. Important for our interests is chapter 6, where he addresses the question of "order and logic": he speaks explicitly of the need to develop a systematic analysis of "grammar and syntax" (p. 107), and he identifies as "graphemes" (ibid. and passim) the minimal constituents of the individual representations seen as texts. Also important is the definition of three categories of graphemes: pictograms are figures with an identifiable referent in nature; ideograms are repetitive signs that "seem to indicate the presence of assumed conventional concepts"; psychograms [an original concept as far as it concerns stylistic analysis of rock art] are signs which are neither representational nor conventionally symbolic, but "express sensations such as heat or cold, light or darkness, life or death,..." (p. 105), "they are signs that have the power to stir the blood and the mind without eliciting any specific association," and while ideograms are synthetic and repetitive, "the psychograms have none of these chracteristics" (p. 114).
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Aruz, Joan; Kim Benzel; Jean M. Evans
2008 Beyond Babylon.
Art, Trade, and Diplomacy in the Second Millennium B.C.

New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art;
New Haven: Yale University Press.
Pagina Web

      This volume displays many different objects coming from the Aegean, Egypt, and the Near East (the Levant, Syria, Anatolia and Mesopotamia), trying to underline the contacts and the trades between these countries in the Middle Bronze Age and in the Late Bronze Age, having a peculiar focus on the so–called ‘international period’.
      The Middle Bronze Age part includes the presentation of artefacts from Babylon, Mari, Ebla, Ugarit, Byblos and Egypt with also some essays about the development of trades in the Early Second millennium BC, the Cedar Forest, the Minoan Kamares Ware, the Tôd Treasure, the commerce of lapis lazuli, the Old Assyrian colonies in Anatolia and the Ivories kept at the MET.
      A second part of the volume is devoted to a discussion about texts, trade and travellers with some sub–chapters on jewellery, the Minoan and Egyptian fresco depictions, ritual and royal imagery including information about board games and horses.
      The third section of the volume is dedicated to the Late Bronze Age, including contacts between different countries (Egypt during the Amarna age, Hittites, Mittani, the Kassite Babylon, Syria and the Aegean).
      A specific chapter is focused on the Uluburun shipwreck and the peculiar role of Cyprus during the Late Bronze Age.
      Two final sections are about ‘the art of exchange’ (focusing on ivories, shells, bones and vitreous materials) and about the ‘legacy’, bridging Babylon with Homer, Anatolia and the Levant, with an insight on ivory–working in the Early First millennium BC.
      At the end of the volume, useful appendices are attached concerning chronological problems (and synchronization) between different areas and countries.
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contacts
art
style
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Asher–Greve, Julia and Joan Goodnick Westenholz
2013 Goddesses in Context: On Divine Powers, Roles, Relationships and Gender in Mesopotamian Textual and Visual Sources
OBO 259,
Fribourg, Göttingen: Academic Press, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Pagina Web

      The present publication is divided into five chapters: 1) “Gender Theory and Issues” (gender categories, changing gender, marginalization of goddesses); 2) “Plethora of Female Deities” (processes of syncretism, fusion, fission and mutation; first stage of profusion followed by a second stage of recession and by a third one of conflation; general trends); 3) “Facets of Change” (the case of Ninḫursaĝa and mythological messages); 4) “Images” (image and religion; visualizing deities; statues, terra–cotta figurines, seals and their role in visualization; power of presence); 5) “Epilogue” (summary of the previous chapters).
      Urkesh is specifically referred to on p. 71, n. 285, with the mention of the Hurrian inscription of Tišatal (from Tell Mozan) which quotes dNIN–na–gar3ki among other Hurrian deities (see Wilhelm 1998, in Mozan Studies 3, pp. 117–143).
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writing 1
writing 2
tokens
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Beckman, Gary
2003 “Gilgamesh in Ḫatti,”
in G.M. Beckman – R.H. Beal – G. McMahon (eds.), Hittite Studies in Honor of Harry A. Hoffner Jr. on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday,
Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, pp. 37–58.
Pagina Web

      In this paper, G. Beckman discusses the circulation and the knowledge of Gilgamesh’s saga within the Hittite Empire: for sure, on a literary perspective, it is well known that some tablets found in the Hittite capital recorded two Akkadian versions of his tales, later translated also in Hittite and Hurrian. However, “there is no evidence that the hero of Uruk was familiar to the Hittite in the streets. No representations of Gilgamesh are to be found in the corpus of the Hittite art, nor are there allusions to him or his exploits in texts outside of the literary products just mentioned” (p. 37).
      The conclusion that the author seems to follow is therefore that “ the Gilgamesh tradition was imported to Ḫattuša solely for use in scribal instruction, although it cannot be absolutely excluded that the Hittite–language text was read aloud at court for the entertainment of the king and his associates” (pp. 37–38).
      Despite this incipit, Beckman continues in analysing the importance that the texts referring to the hero found in the Hittite capital had in the transmission of the saga and in its elaboration outside Mesopotamia. After sketching out the history and the development of the Gilgamesh’s tales (from the Early Dynastic II period until the last discoveries of related texts at Nimrud and Assur) the author presents a key question: “When […] was something approximating the standard, or “canonical,” form of the narrative achieved?” (p. 41). The following pages are devoted to a in–depth analysis of the Hittite documentation related to Gilgamesh, starting from well–known notions and adding recent new discoveries, comparing some motifs or elements of the Anatolian versions with other texts found elsewhere.
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Gilgamesh
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Ben–Shlomo, David
2010 Philistine Iconography: A Wealth of Style and Symbolism
OBO 241,
Fribourg, Göttingen: Academic Press, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Pagina Web

      The volume consists of five chapters: 1) an introduction to the meaning of iconography in material culture; 2) definition and presentation of Philistine Iron Age material culture and iconography; 3) iconographic representations in Iron Age Philistia; 4) the symbolic world of the Philistines; 5) conclusions. An appendix offers the list of the objects presented with archaeological data of the unpublished items.
      Tell Mozan is directly mentioned on p. 115, n. 33, speaking about zoomorphic figurines: “In an analysis of nearly 400 zoomorphic figurines from an Early Dynastic context at Tell Mozan, the identification of species was carried out according to a careful examination of details and body proportions, using comparisons to real animals (Hauser 2007, pp. 3–11, 561–625, table 1); the result was that most were identified as Ovis/Capro and Equis”.
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style
iconography
human figurines
animal figurines
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Braun–Holzinger, Eva Andrea
2013 Frühe Götterdarstellungen in Mesopotamien. Ihre Beziehungen im Spiegel der Archäologie und der Literatur des Alten Testaments und seiner Umwelt.
OBO 261,
Fribourg, Göttingen: Academic Press, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Pagina Web

      The scholar presents a study on the first attested representations of gods in Mesopotamia. Nine chapters are devoted to explaining this topic: 1) an introduction about cultic statues, cultic symbols and their attributes leading to the identification of specific gods; 2) foundation figurines; 3) statuettes; 4) representations of gods in scenes from reliefs and seals; 5) early mythology; 6) themes related to vegetation and farming; 7) the role of the gods represented on glyptic; 8) general summary on the topics of the horned–crown and the denominations of the deities; 9) conclusions. At the end, a catalogue of all the quoted materials is attached.
      Tell Mozan is namely mentioned on pp. 134, 139 (with n. 680) and 160, dealing with the motif of the god riding an equid, with a specific reference to Buccellati and Kelly–Buccellati 2002, pp. 22–25 (on p. 139, n. 680).
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iconography
glyptic: Tupkish
glyptic: Uqnitum
glyptic: courtiers
glyptic: Tar’am–Agade
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Buccellati, Giorgio
1966 The Amorites of the Ur III Period.
Ricerche, I
Naples: Istituto Orientale di Napoli [pp. XVIII, 380, Plates I–XIV].
Part 1: Pagina Web
Part 2: Pagina Web

The volume is divided into two parts:
      – the first one is devoted to the linguistic affiliation of the Amorites, retracing previous studies on the ‘Amorite question’, discussing Amorites of the Ur III period, presenting the main sources (administrative and non–administrative texts, list of names); the Amorite names are analysed on a grammatical and lexical floor, discussing the relationships between Old and Middle Amorite;
      – the second part offers a reconstruction of the Amorites’ history, presenting their homeland, their connections with the West, the East and the South; afterwards, the geographical distribution of the Amorites in Sumerian cities (Drehem, Isin, Lagas and many others) is displayed; then, the social stratification of the Amorites is introduced (Amorites considered as foreigners, as residents, as people of undetermined status, as MAR.TU). In the end, the author provides the reader with the presentation of the chronological development of the Amorites (from the nomadic time until their sedentarization) and of their history during the Ur III and the Old Babylonian periods.
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cited
1981 “Principles of Stylistic Analysis,”
in Y. L. Arbeitman and A. R. Bomhard, Bono homini Donum: Essays in Historical Linguistics in Memory of J. Alexander Kerns.
Amsterdam Studies in the Theory and History of Linguistic Science, Vol. 4, pp. 807–836.
Amsterdam: John Benjamins B.V.
Pagina Web

      This paper deals with a theoretical insight into the main principles of stylistic analysis of ancient texts, namely those written Akkadian. The starting point of the discussion moves from a precise statement on the definition of the term ‘style’: “It is a standard joke among archaeologists that whatever remains functionally unexplained in a given assemblage of material culture comes to be called, and considered, ‘cultic’ . Much the same could be said, on the formal level, of the way the term ‘style’ is often used” (p. 807).
      The definition of the topic continues stressing how “At its vaguest, style is conceived as some sort of limbo to which anything formally bizarre in culture may be relegated” (p. 807). The author aims to determine the term and the concept of ‘style’ as a diachronic system, opposing to any kind of synchronic notion.
      Therefore, a clear definition of the term ‘style’ is stated: “A recurrent selection of relatively idiosyncratic features” (p. 808). The stylistic analysis is based on a selection of “patterns of occurrence as they are found in the text“ (p. 808) and “either a single feature or a cluster may be the object of selection” (p. 809); then, it is required these features to be recurrent, forming a specific pattern. And last but not least, the features must be idiosyncratic being “ identifiable on the basis of their distinctiveness within a given assemblage vis–à–vis other assemblages” (p. 809).
      This basic definition is than followed and complemented by some corollaries about the concepts of textual assemblage, of selection (choice) and equivalence, of paradigm of alternants; a further discussion about diachronic vs. synchronic approaches is then presented, followed by a paragraph on the distinction between stylistic and linguistic development.
      The last part of the paper is devoted to the definition and analysis of stylistic features (providing an explanation of segmentation and composition mechanisms), of stylistic patterns and of stylistic factors.
      In sum: “style, far from being an ill–defined limbo, can be assigned its own very specific place in the configuration of cultural assemblages; and stylistic analysis, by articulating explicitly the modalities and conditions of this particular cultural dimension, comes to play a unique and powerful role in our growing understanding of culture” (p. 835).
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cited
1981 “The Perception of Function and the Prehistory of the State in Syro–Mesopotamia,”
in B. D. Dillon and M. A. Boxt (eds.), Archaeology Without Limits. papers in Honor of Clement W. Meighan,
Lancaster: Labyrinthos, pp. 481–492.
Pagina Web

      In this paper, G. Buccellati re–defines some peculiar aspects about the so–called ‘Neolithic revolution’ and the ‘urban revolution’, recognizing how the latter and the state formation are “two Janus–like faces of a single phaenomenon […] in any discussion of early Syro–Mesopotamian history […] an area where anthropologists and humanists, historians, and archaeologists, are more likely to find a common ground” (p. 481).
      Under a perspective in which “theory could only be validated if it served as an exegesis of the artifacts” (p. 481), the author presents “some reflections on the double–sided issue of the urban revolution and of state formation, by pointing to a series of factors that help explain the dynamics behind this momentous period in human development” (p. 481).
      The first paragraph of the paper deals with perceptual fragmentation, describing the distancing of the human beings from nature after the ‘agricultural revolution’, “from the perspective of how human perception was impacted by the whole process” (p. 482). This fragmentation led to the “development of a meta–perceptual dimension, whereby perception transcends the limits of the perceivable” (p. 483).
      The second paragraph describes the perceptual realignment and the role of function of societies becoming much more complex (‘civilized’), because of the increasing of cultural constructs: the human beings had to develop “the ability to coordinate the intricate web of relationships that gradually ensued” (p. 483). During this phase “meta–perception becomes perception” (p. 485), in a process that resulted in ‘professionalism’ and marked a “depersonalization in human interaction” (p. 485).
      The third paragraph discusses the self–perception of human being living in cities, “breaking the barrier of face–to–face association” (p. 485), asking “how did the individual perceive the group” (p. 485). At this point, a ‘functionalization of human beings’ began (including the development of slavery), defining the ‘city’ as “a group whose solidarity is based on systemic presuppositions of broadly tensional, territorially contiguous, impersonal human functions” (p. 486).
      The fourth paragraph describes the beginning of the state, under a “fragmentation and realignment of the human group” (p. 487); this stage is characterized by the presence (and need) of a determined leadership able to organize all the functional processes.
      The fifth paragraph presents the next stage leading to the ‘industrialization’, in a process of “fragmentation and realignment of production” (p. 488).
      The sixth paragraph introduces the development of the first writing systems, as a “fragmentation and realignment of memory” (p. 489).
      The seventh paragraph focuses on the basic topic of “the perceptual history of a ‘dead’ civilization” (p. 491), concluding that “if we can learn from the past, it is because the past was alive, and because we have access to the life it lived” (p. 491).
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Carr, Nicholas
2008 “Is Google Making us Stupid? What the Internet is Doing to Our Brains,”.
The Atlantic, July–August 2008.
http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200807/google

     An insightful review of the processes whereby the Internet is changing our cognitive habits, with an emphasis on the negative aspects such as the decrease of concentration and reflection. It develops an interesting parallel with the theory of "scientific management" as developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor.
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Charpin, Dominique, Dietz Otto Edzard and Marten Stol
2004 Mesopotamien.
Die altbabylonische Zeit.

OBO 160/4,
Fribourg, Göttingen: Academic Press, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
[herausgegeben von Pascal Attinger, Walther Sallaberger and Markus Wäfler].
Pagina Web

      This miscellaneous volume presents the history of Mesopotamia during the Old–Babylonian period.
      Chapter 1 (by D. Charpin) deals with the political history of the Amorite Near–East (2002–1595 BC). The chapter in correlated with three final annexes on the main dynasties, the kings of the Amorite period, the geographic framework and a general, analytical bibliography.
      Chapter 2 (by D.O. Edzard) offers an overview on the Old–Babylonian literature and religion.
      Chapter 3 (by M. Stol) displays the economy and society during the Old–Babylonian period.
      Chapter 4 reports the abbreviations and the indexes.
Tell Mozan is specifically mentioned in five occurrences:
      – on pp. 32–33, where D. Charpin exposes the geographical and chronological background of Upper Mesopotamia during the Amorite period (2002–1595 BC), offering bibliographical references in n. 26 (Buccellati and Kelly–Buccellati 1995–1996; Buccellati and Kelly–Buccellati 1996; Buccellati and Kelly–Buccellati 1998; Buccellati and Kelly–Buccellati 2001);
      – on p. 186, n. 872, the same author identifies the area of Tell Mozan and Šinah as the possible location of some nomad rebellions (namely Bedouins from Yamkhad) under the reign of Yasmah–Addu, an event recalled in text ARM IV 40 (= LAPO 17 461), mentioning directly Urkesh;
      – on p. 221, it is recalled how about 2000 soldiers, led by Asqur–Addu, reached Urkesh after having conquered Šubat–Enlil (see ARMT XXVII 133–134, quoted in n. 1112), during the struggles between Hammurabi of Kurdâ and Atamrum;
      – on p. 300, Charpin tells about some discords between the coalition of Urkesh, Šuduhum and Ašnakkum with the chief Bedouin Ibâl–El, about the animals to be sacrificed after the stipulation of an alliance;
      – on p. 890, Stol includes Urkesh in a discussion about the ancient trade routes in Upper Mesopotamia (referring to Hallo 1964, p. 84, § 4).
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history
trades
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Corti, Carlo and Franca Pecchioli Daddi
2012 “The Power in Heaven: Remarks on the So–Called Kumarbi Cycle,”
in G. Wilhelm (ed.), Organization, Representation, and Symbols of Power in the Ancient Near East,
Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 2012, pp. 611–618.

      In this paper the authors discuss about the so–called “Kumarbi Cycle”, a great mythological cycle made up of various works: the “Theogony (or) Kingship in Heaven” or “Song of [Kumarbi]”, the “Kingship of LAMMA”, “Song of Silver”, “Ḫedammu”, “Song of Ullikummi”, “Song of the Sea” and “Ea and the Beast”.
      On p. 616, the authors summon up the different traditions behind this cycle, pinpointing traditions from the Mesopotamian area, from Eastern Anatolia and from the proper core of Anatolia. Speaking about traditions from Eastern Anatolia, it is made a clear reference to the city of Tell Mozan/Urkesh: “Tradition from: 2) Eastern Anatolia for its geographic setting with cities like Urkiš and Kummiya and for the involvement of its protagonist, who can be traced linguistically to that tradition (Kumarbi, “the Kumar one”). This derivation is confirmed by the fact that a large part of the deities involved belonged to the same Hurrian pantheon”. Therefore, a clear connection to the city of Urkesh (despite the strange spelling if the toponym in tue quotation) is established.
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mythology: Kumarbi
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Darwin, Charles R.
1872 The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.
London: John Murray [6th edition].
Pagina Web

      The aim of the author of this masterpiece of natural science and anthropology is clearly stated at the beginning of his preface: “I will here attempt to give a brief, but I fear imperfect, sketch of the progress of opinion on the Origin of Species” (p. v).
      The whole book is subdivided into fourteen chapters, dealing with the following topics: 1) variation under domestication; 2) variation under nature; 3) struggle for existence; 4) natural selection; 5) laws of variation; 6) difficulties on theory; 7) instinct; 8) hybridism; 9) on the imperfection of the geological record; 10) on the geological succession of organic beings; 11) geographical distribution and dispersal; 12) distribution of fresh–water production and colonization; 13) mutual affinities of organic beings: morphology, embryology, rudimentary organs; 14) recapitulation (difficulties in theory) and conclusion (on natural selection, immutability of species, further paths of research).
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cited

1958 The autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809–1882. With the original omissions restored. Edited and with appendix and notes by his grand–daughter Nora Barlow.
London and Glasgow: Collins Clear–Type Press.
The original was first published posthumously in 1887 with several omissions.
Pagina Web

      This book has been fully scanned and digitalized by J. van Wyhe in 2004, providing also the images of the original manuscript, reproduced with permission of the Barlow family, the Syndics of Cambridge University Library and William Huxley Darwin (for this version, see the aforementioned hyperlink).
      The publication retraces the paths of Darwin’s life and career, being divided into three sections: 1) the autobiography itself; 2) an appendix; 3) notes.
      Here follows the list of the appendixes: 1) on Ch. Darwin and his grandfather Dr. E. Darwin; 2) the Darwin–Butler Controversy.
      These are instead the notes: 1) unpublished letter from Dr. E. Darwin to his son Robert; 2) how Dr. R. Darwin’s objections to the Voyage were overcome; 3) the pencil notes of 1837–8; 4) Mrs. Darwin’s papers on religion; 5) on Ch. Darwin’s ill–health; 6) references to previous omitted passages.
      The importance of this autobiography has been already stressed by Darwin himself in a letter to J.D. Hooker, dated 1869 and reported on p. 8: “If I lived twenty more years and was able to work, how I should have to modify the Origin, and how much the views on all points will have to be modified! Well it is a beginning, and that is something”.
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Di Salvo, Santina
2018 Adaptive Materials Research for Architecture.
Advanced Materials Research 1149, Zurich: Scientific.Net, 2018.
Pagina Web

      This volume is a miscellanea of chapters about many different topics related to the analysis “of properties, biomimetic materials, smart technologies and results of scientific research in the field of adaptive architecture, exploring strategies in past and current architectural practice” (see Preface).
      Since many years, a particular attention has been addressed to the safeguard of archaeological sites, being them in safe regions or, much more important, in areas around the world were war or other political features request for a protection of the sites.
      Under a multidisciplinary and holistic approach, the book “looks at the environmental and energy objectives with innovative technological solutions aimed at optimizing the bioclimatic behavior both in existing and new buildings with attention for human and environmental well–being“ (see Preface).
      The eleven chapters composing the volume deal with many topics: the adaptation of buildings according to climate changes, the use of building materials in ancient and modern times, the research on biomimetic materials, the role of energy technologies, the building optimization and the development of new strategies or even structures (such as the experimental archaeological covering at Tell Mozan/Urhesh) to achieve the best preservation of archaeological sites.
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conservation
park
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Franklin, Kristine L. and Nancy McGirr (eds.)
1995 Out of the Dump.
Writings and Photographs by Children from Guatemala.
Translated from the Spanish by Kristine L. Franklin.
New York: Lothrop, Lee and Shepard Books.
Pagina Web [Archive.org Library]

      This photographic book (collecting, and connecting, both poems and pictures) developed from a project started in 1991 by Nancy McGirr in Guatemala City, when she started photographing children living and working there to support their own families.
      After some time, the author noted the interest of those children for her work and she decided to directly involve them into her job: children began to take pictures by themselves (with few cameras brought from the dump) and later their photos were shared through many exhibitions abroad, thanks to the effort and financial support of sponsors.
      The money earned from this project were devolved to give children access to schools; but, above all, this experience represented an opportunity “to show them the power of dreaming”.
[mDP]
     See also the website Fotokids.
cited  1, 2
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Gerth, Hand H. and C. Wright Mills
1958 From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology.
Translated and with an Introduction.
New York: Oxford University Press – A Galaxy Book.
[First edition: 1946]
Pagina Web

      The purpose of the editors is to offer a proper and faithful English translation of some of the most important M. Weber’s essays, basing this translation to the theories of A.F. Tytler (in his Principles of Translation).
      The whole volume is divided into four parts (after a preface and an introduction to M. Weber’s figure and work), dealing with the following topics: 1) science and politics; 2) power; 3) religion; 4) social structures.
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Gladwell, Malcolm
2005 Blink. The Power of Thinking without Thinking.
New York: Little, Brown and Company.

   An insightful popularization of elements of psychology that are especially helpful for us in two regards. First, the role of perception in anticipating and even defining judgment (see, e.g., pp. 160–167, where he speaks of sensation transfer with regard to commercial products and advertising). Second, the interrelationship between instinct and an organized system of thought (see, e.g., his discussions about the "structure of spontaneity" on pp. 111–117; about the experts' ability to articulate instinct, pp. 176–186; or about the classification of system of facial expressions, pp. 204–208).
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Goody, Jack
1986 The Logic of Writing and the Organization of Society.
Cambridge: Cambridge University press

      The aim of this book is clearly stated by the author in his preface: “This book attempts to spell out some of the general differences between the social organization of societies without and with writing and the process of transition from one to the other” (Preface, p. xi).
      As for the methodology the author explains: “I am not concerned simply with differences for difference sake. In the first place I am trying to provide a more satisfactory explanation, for myself and for the reader, of certain widely used concepts, sociological and anthropological, historical and common–sense, that have been used to describe the major differences or transition s in the history of human societies” (Preface, p. xi).
      Chapter 1 is devoted to an analysis of the idea of ‘word’ related to religion, cults, and rites, distinguishing the concepts of “‘a’/‘the’ religion”. The author moves on discussing about the ‘boundaries’ of religions, ‘changing’ of religions (i.e., conversion), ‘obsolescence’ of religion, ‘incorporation or conversion’, ‘universalism and particularism’, ‘contradictions’ in religion, ‘specialization’ (i.e., priests and intellectuals), ‘endowment and alienation’, the relationship between religion and power (and religion’s autonomy), ‘spirit cults and world religions’. Furthermore, writing and religion in Ancient Egypt are described, concluding the chapter with a description of the connection between ritual and writing.
      Chapter 2 is about the role of economic activities in the origin of writing systems in the Ancient Near East expanding the topic in the second part also to the relationship between writing and individual transactions.
      Chapter 3 focuses on the influence of writing on polity: internal administration (taxation, accountings and the census, correspondence, numbers and the control of time) and external administration (international treaties and the role of the ambassadors). In the second part of the chapter, the author compares ‘writing–societies’ with states without ‘writing–administration’. More in general the chapter is about the creation of state and bureaucracy in different ancient and modern societies, with a section on writing in the colonial and national administrations. The chapter ends with a brief paragraph about the ethical responsibility of writing.
      Chapter 4 present the role of writing in the codification of law and legal systems: starting with a definition of law, it moves to discuss the role of courts, constables and codes, the sources of law and the changing of rules during time, the role of tradition in judging, and legal forms of writing (contracts, testaments), the practice of oral legal procedures. The last part of the chapter explores writing and law in medieval England, and the relationship between ‘the letter and the spirit of the law’.
      Chapter 5 summarizes the two aims of the book: 1) “outline the effects of early literacy on […] human societies” 2) to strength the emphasis on means and mode od communication, avoiding any Eurocentric perspective. The authors highlines ‘ruptures and continuities’ in writing, from the learning process to the creation of classes of specialists (scribes); he also adds some remarks about the influence of writing upon religion, underlining tendencies and exceptions, comparing this situation to that of religious systems of societies without writing, ending with a reflection on writing in modern times.
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writing 1
writing 2
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Grafton, Anthony
1997 The Footnote. A Curious History.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

     A thorough historical analysis of the development of the footnote in scholarly discourse, from early intimations to the full–fledged use.
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Haarmann, Harald
2007 Foundations of Culture.
Knowledge–Construction, Belief Systems and Worldview in Their Dynamic Interplay.

Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
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Hamilton, Edith and Huntington Cairns (eds.)
1961 The Collected Dialogues of Plato, Including the Letters.
Bollingen Series 71.
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Pagina Web [Archive.org Library]

This book collects the English translation of all Plato’s dialogues, according to the following order:
      – Apology of Socrates;
      – Crito;
      – Phaedo;
      – Charmides;
      – Laches;
      – Lysis;
      – Euthyphro;
      – Menexenus;
      – Lesser Hippias;
      – Ion;
      – Gorgias;
      – Protagoras;
      – Meno;
      – Euthydemus;
      – Cratylus;
      – Phaedrus;
      – Symposium;
      – Republic;
      – Theaetetus;
      – Parmenides;
      – Sophist;
      – Statesman;
      – Philebus;
      – Timaeus;
      – Critias;
      – Laws;
An appendix presents three other works:
      – Epinomis;
      – Greater Hippias;
      – Letters;
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James, Peter and Marinus Anthony van der Sluijs
2012 “‘Silver’: A Hurrian Phaethon,”
JANER, Vol. 12 (2012), pp. 237–251.
Pagina Web

      This paper is devoted to compare the figure of the classical mythological figure of Phaethon (from Ovid’s Metamorphoses 1. 750–2. 400) with his possible precursor, i.e. the Hurrian deity ‘Silver’, mentioned in the Song of Silver .
      Despite a possible origin of the myth has been already retraced by Gantz in some fragments of a drama by Euripides entitled Phaethon , the authors of the present contribution try to highlight some possible comparisons with the Near Eastern ‘God Silver’, attested in the aforementioned Song of Silver preserved in a Hittite version from Ḫattuša and in other parallels.
      A direct connection of this god with the city of Urkesh is established thanks to the mention of his father Kumarbi defined in the text as “the Father of the city Urkesh“ furthermore, as Phaethon searched his father throughout the land of the sunrise which bordered on his Ethiopian home, thus Silver reached the city of Urkesh in quest of his father Kumarbi.
      Last but not least, the authors underline how “the Hurrians localised at least some of the Silver story in the region around Urkeš in northern Mesopotamia, the only placename mentioned, and Buccellati & Kelly–Buccellati 2009 (67–69) have argued that the montains that Silver wandered in search of his father would have been the range north of Iraq” (p. 245). In the end, the whole myth regarding Silver could be strictly located in the vicinity of Urkesh, as stressed by Archi, who recognized that “the songs of Silver and Ullikummi refer to Urkeš as the residence of Kumarbi” (p. 246). Thus, the myths related to Silver can be seen for sure as a excellent specimen of the Hurrian culture.
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mythology: Silver
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Jones, Siân
1997 The Archaeology of Ethnicity.
Constructing Identities in the Past and Present.

London and New York: Routledge.
Pagina Web

      With this book, the author tries to reassess the way in which the past is reconstructed and interpreted on an archaeological background, defining the concept of ‘ethnicity’ within an archaeological framework.
      After the introduction (chapter 1), chapter 2 discusses about the archaeological identification of peoples and cultures, with the Romanization as a study case.
      Chapter 3 reflects about the classification of peoples in the human sciences, re–defining concepts as ‘taxonomy’ and ‘difference’, dealing with the emergence of ethnicity as a primary taxonomic category; the focus here is on the conceptualization of difference in the early to mid–twentieth century.
      Chapter 4 presents ethnicity and its conceptual and theoretical terrain: conceptualization of ethnicity, primordial imperative and instrumental ethnicity are discussed, proposing an integrated theoretical approach.
      Chapter 5 focuses on ‘multidimentional ethnicity’, presenting a practice theory of ethnicity and some historical models of ethnicity.
      Chapter 6 crosses ethnicity and material culture, giving a theoretical basis for the interpretation of ethnicity in archaeology.
      Chapter 7 displays a conclusion, presenting a comparative theory of ethnicity, reconsidering also the Romanization, adding in the end a comment about the role of archaeology on politics of identity.
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ethnicity
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Kelly–Buccellati, Marilyn
1977 “Towards a Quantitative Analysis of Mesopotamian Sphragistics,”
Mesopotamia XII, pp. 41–52.
Pagina Web

      In this paper, the author reflects about the correct use of statistical analysis in the study of Mesopotamian sphragistics.
      Paragraph 1 presents the goals and the presuppositions, recalling how “cylinder seals and seal impressions constitute a continuous record of the changing pictorial style in Mesopotamia from the Uruk period on” (p. 41); moreover, she also stresses some iconological and chronological problems in interpreting ancient glyptic material. The solution here proposed consists in a methodological and quantitative approach which “should seek to minimize as much as possible subjective evaluations in analyzing seals and imprints” (p. 42).
      The author continues suggesting the application of a binary logical model “in a system whose component parts are truly mutually exclusive and hence truly comprehensive” (p. 42). Such a structural system of attribute analysis has the benefit to be a close system (‘–emic’) vs. a cumulative open system (‘–etic’).
      To achieve such an effort, technology (such as photogrammetry) can be very helpful in eliminating (or at least reducing) inevitable margins of error.
      The main goal is to “be able to determine very fine stylistic idiosyncrasies which result not from a conscious effort on the part of the seal carver, but rather from motor habits which are impossible to reproduce consciously and thus are a sure indication of a single person as maker. It is only through these means that we can finally separate the work of individual artists on a more secure basis” (p. 42).
      Paragraph 2 presents the current status (at that time) of the stylistic and iconographic analysis of Mesopotamian glyptic, hinting to a new project based on iconographical, clearly recognizable features including specific internal criteria (both epigraphic and anepigraphic = figurative).
      Paragraph 3 is devoted to the figurative and epigraphic correlations in the analysis of the gods and their symbols.
      The last paragraph 4 concludes with the hope that such a system of analysis could be much more shared with the purpose of realize “an open ended data bank whose input will be flexible enough so that answers to questions not now anticipated can be given” (p. 50).
[mDP]
statistics
glyptic: Tupkish
glyptic: Uqnitum
glyptic: courtiers
glyptic: Tar’am–Agade
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Leisegang, Hans
1951 Denkformen.
Berlin: de Gruyter (second edition; first edition published in 1949).
cited
philosophy
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Mansfeld, Günter
1970 “3. Scherben mit altkanaanäischer Schrift vom Kamid el–Loz,”
in D. O. Edzard, R. Hachmann, P. Maiberger, G. Mansfeld, Kamid el–Loz–Kumidi, Saarbrücker Beiträge ur Altertumskunde, Band 7.
Bonn: Rudolf Habelt, pp.24–41.
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Michalowski, Piotr
1951 Tokenism.
A review article of Schmandt–Besserat 1992, Before Writing.
American Anthropologist 95 (1993), pp. 996–999.

     A critical assessment of Schmandt–Besserat's work, it raises especially two major concerns. (1) Given the crucial importance of repeatability [i.e., distributional patterns] in establishing a semiotic system, it is difficult to so conceive the vast assemblage of tokens, which is too highly differentiated and spread over too wide a geographical area and too broad a temporal span. (2) The argument in favour of writing developing directly from tokens, and “literacy from numeracy” is not convincing: “The complex social and political changes [...] toward the end of the fourth millennium represent a quantum leap of unprecedented dimensions and not a gradual evolutionary historical development. The invention of writing was part of this punctuated metamorphosis; while the inventor, or inventors, relied on earlier communication systems, [...] proto–cuneiform writing was materially and structurally a completely new semiotic form.”
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Moser, Stephanie and Darren Glazier, James E. Phillips,
Lamya Nasser el Nemr, Mohammed Saleh Mousa, Rascha Nasr Aiesh,
Susan Richardson, Andrew Conner and Michael Seymour
2002 “Transforming Archaeology through Practice: Strategies for Collaborative Archaeology and the Community Archaeology Project at Quseir, Egypt,”
World Archaeology, Vol. 34, No. 2, Community Archaeology (Oct., 2002), pp. 220–248. Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd.
Pagina Web

     Strong advocacy is presented for a direct involvement of the stakeholders in the interpretive process of an archaeological site. The dialog with locals should be a true two–way street, that involves serious “consultation with indigenous and descendant communities” (p. 223), evolving into a “democratic sense of archaeological practice” (p. 224). A radical theoretical stance is defended that challenges “the false distinctions between scientific, mythic and historical domains of knowledge” (p. 224): in other words, local oral history and perceptions must be placed on the same level as the archaeological analysis proper.
     The Community Archeological Project of Quseir is presented as a case study, with a strategy based on seven components, (1) Communication and collaboration: local people and organizations are systemically and institutionally involved in defining how the information is to be presented. (2) Employment and training: this entails the “sharing [on the part of the foreign experts, of] knowledge and skills associated with archaeology” (p. 233). (3) Public presentation, including exhibitions for which local input is actively sought with regard to themes (a special interest in modern history developed in the process). (4) Interviews and oral history. (5) Educational resources, with emphasis on visit by school–children. (6) Photographic and video archive: people photos that tend to get lost are archived next to the “scientific” photos [quotes in the original, seemingly in deference to the “false distinction” against which the authors spoke earlier. – In Mozan, people photos and videos are carefully archived among incidentals.] (7) Community controlled merchandising.
     In the conclusion, some practical results of the Quseir project are mentioned, such as a visit to an active mosque and the sharing of local knowledge about a now disappeared fishing village.
     [The “false distinction” decried in the text seems in fact to be upheld – inevitably, in my view, because it is not false. The source of information, employment, training remain clearly one–way approaches, as they well should be. – At Mozan, we have in fact followed the seven components of the strategy, but within a different theoretical framework and a different understanding of “non–colonialism.”]
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Oakes, Guy and Arthur J. Vidich
1999 Collaboration, Reputation, and Ethics in American Academic Life: Hans H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills.
Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

     An insightful study of the collaboration between two prominent scholars, whose uneven successes and reciprocal struggles are analyzed in detail, the book clarifies one aspect that is important for our website (and archaeological work in general), namely the aspect of collective authorship – or, as they describe it, “the distribution of knowledge and power in collaboration and its importance in the social production of authorship, academic reputation and intellectual authority” (p. 9, italics mine).
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Oates, David; Joan Oates and Helen McDonald
1997 Excavations at Tell Brak.
Vol. 1: The Mitanni and Old Babylonian Periods.

McDonald Institute Monographs.
London: British School of Archaeology in Iraq.
Pagina Web

      The volume, presenting the results of the excavations at Tell Brak for what concerns the Mittanian and Old Babylonian periods, consists of 12 chapters presented hereafter.
      Chapter 1 introduces the areas excavated on the mound: the Mittanian Palace, the Mittani Temple, Area HH, Trenches A–D, the House contexts in Trench D. Moreover, also the finds from the Palace and the Temple are published, together with a final stratigraphic summary.
      Chapter 2 (edited by J. Eidem) presents the inscriptions found on the site.
      Chapter 3 (by D. Matthews) displays seals and sealings from Tell Brak and in particular those belonging to the Mittanian period: these are presented according to their typology.
      Chapter 4 relates to the presentation of pottery divided into the following types: Early second–millennium pottery (Isin–Larsa); Old Babylonian pottery; Mittanian pottery; Middle Assyrian pottery; first–millennium pottery; Mycenaean stirrup jars (this last by E.B. French).
      Chapter 5 focuses on glass, frit and faience materials, offering technical details on the manufacture and on glass analyses (especially by R.H. Brill and H. Shirahata): this latter also allows to present some further archaeological implications (by J. Henderson).
      Chapter 6 (by H. McDonald) publishes all the beads found at Tell Brak.
      Chapter 7 deals with stone objects: sculpture, alabaster (with a discussion on this peculiar material), travertine and other stones, with a final insight on stone contexts (these latter mostly by H. McDonald).
      Chapter 8 presents the metal objects in copper/bronze, lead, gold and silver (by G. Philip) with two paragraphs about a granulated gold fragment (TB 8041; by K.R. Maxwell–Hyslop) and chemical analyses on metals (by C. Shell).
      Chapter 9 is about organic materials (ivory, bone, shell, wood, ostrich shells) with two final paragraphs about dendrochronology (by P.I. Kuniholm) and palaeobotany (by M. Charles and A. Bogaard).
      Chapter 10 speaks about clay objects (by H. McDonald).
      Chapter 11 deals with microstratigraphy and micromorphology of depositional sequences (by W. Matthews, C.A.I. French, T. Lawrence, D.F. Cutler and M.K. Jones).
      The last chapter 12 ends with a final historical commentary.
      At the end, artefacts drawings, abbreviations and codes for ceramic ware types are attached, together with two appendixes on context information for publishes sherds and beads and a list of Area HH loci.
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Oppenheim, A. Leo
1958 “An Operational Device in Mesopotamian Bureaucracy,”
Journal of Near Eastern Studies 17, pp. 121–28.

     Publication of a bulla from Nuzi (about 1400 B.C.) that contained 48 small objects called “stones” in the text inscribed on the bulla. The author reconstructs the administrative system that made use of these “tokens” (as the “stones” may be interpreted), whereby each object represented a specific animal. He also collects evidence from other texts where the same “stones” are shown to have been in regular use in Syro–Mesopotamia.
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cited
 

Oppenheim, A. Leo; Robert H. Brill; Dan Barag; Axel von Saldern
1970 Glass and Glassmaking in Ancient Mesopotamia.
An Edition of the Cuneiform Texts which Contain Instructions for Glassmakers with a Catalogue of Surviving Objects.

Corning, New York: The Corning Museum of Glass.
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Palumbo, Gaetano
2001 “Sheltering an Archaeological Structure in Petra. A Case–study of Criteria, Concepts, and Implementation,”
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites 5, pp. 35–44.

     Assessment of the checkered history of a broad base shelter project. The surprising outcome of a competition was that two first prizes were awarded, but no commission was given for implementation. Instead, an altogether different design was chosen, which was implemented for a cost exceeding a quarter million dollars (a figure that, the author points out, makes the notion of reversibility rather moot, p. 42), equivalent to $400 per square meter (p. 40). The general evaluation criteria that emerged from the process were: “Protection from rain and sun, reversibility, minimal visual impact, visibility of the site, protection against visitors, [...] rapid construction, long life, low maintenance [...], natural lighting [...] and ventilation” (p. 38).
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conservation

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––>
2006 “Privatization of State–owned Cultural Heritage: A Critique of Recent Trends in Europe,”
in Agnew & Bridgland 2006, pp. 35–39

     The economic exploitation, for profit, of cultural heritage places is a myopic policy that has only in mind a short term economic advantage, but cannot be sustained in the long term. As noted even by economists, "the long–term economic advantage is not necessarily the one that produces revenue but the one that improves the well–being of the people" (p. 36). Thus, one should favour a model of cultural heritage use (as opposed to exploitation), which produces a number of benefits (tabulated on p. 38): "Exploitation sees cultural heritage as a product to manipulate, a product that exists on its own" (p. 37).
cited
park
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Roaf, Michael
1990 Cultural Atlas of the Ancient Near East.
Oxford: Facts on File.

A well informed and readable account, with plenty of maps and illustrations.
geography
history
archaeology
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Rohn, Karin
2011 Beschriftete mesopotamische Siegel der Frühdynastischen und der Akkad–Zeit
OBO, Series Archaeologica 32,
Fribourg, Göttingen: Academic Press, Vandenhoeck Ruprecht.
Pagina Web

      This volume, offering an analysis of the inscribed seals of the Early–Dynastic and Akkadian periods is divided into 13 chapters, presenting different iconographic scenes: 1) general (chronological and typological) introduction to the topic; 2) animal hunting scenes; 3) banquette scenes; 4) struggles of gods scenes; 5) presentation, adoration and audience scenes; 6) various other scenes; 7) stamp seals; 8) legends; 9) the Sun–sign; 10) the use of sealings; 11) general conclusion; 12) summary; 13) appendix about bifacial seals, seals not included in the catalogue, the catalogue with bibliography, indices and concordances.
      The glyptic from Tell Mozan is exposed in detail on paragraphs 2.2.3 (animal hunting scenes of Early–Dynastic–Early Akkadian periods) and 8.3.3.3 (legends of Early–Dynastic–Early Akkadian periods).
Urkesh is also directly mentioned several times (only the most significant passages are here summarized):
      – on p. 12, n. 105, about presence/absence of the name of king Rīmuš at Tell Mozan;
      – on p. 13, about peculiar glyptic features at Urkesh;
      – on p. 37–38, with n. 306, it is discussed the provenance from Urkesh of sealings no. 215, 216 and 536 (quoting respectively Tupkiš, Innin–šadū and Išarbēlī: for this last, cf. p. 69);
      – on p. 43, a sealing quoting Tupkiš is presented (no. 342);
      – on p. 49, sealing no. 429 (from Tell Mozan), mentions an endan of Urkesh (cf. n. 369, for the suggestion [in Buccellati and Kelly–Buccellati 2001, p. 63 and Buccellati and Kelly–Buccellati 2002, p. 18] that this endan could have been the husband of Tar’am–Agade);
      – on p. 49, sealing no. 429 (from Tell Mozan), mentions an endan of Urkesh (cf. n. 369, for the suggestion [in Buccellati and Kelly–Buccellati 2001, p. 63 and Buccellati and Kelly–Buccellati 2002, p. 18] that this endan could have been the husband of Tar’am–Agade);
      – on pp. 81–82, two sealing from Tell Mozan are presented (nos. 621–622), probably displaying an enthroned Tupkiš);
      – on pp. 82–83, 129 (n. 1143) and 203, referring to seals (nos. 629, 630, 630a) of Zamena, nurse (émeda) of queen Uqnītum of Urkesh;
      – on p. 181, the specificity of Urkesh’s glyptic iconography is stressed;
      – on p. 188, n. 1528, quoting Išarbēlī (šabra–é of Tūtašarlibbiš) and referring to the identification of this person given in Buccellati and Kelly–Buccellati 2002, p. 24f.;
      – on p. 201 (referring to sealings nos. 621 and 649), Tupkiš is quoted as “en–da–an ur–kèški
      – on p. 213, n. 1732, queen Uqnītum of Urkesh is the owner of sealing no. 622, where she is defined as wife of Tupkiš
      – on p. 215, it is offered a difference in the use of seals at Urkesh, in comparison with Southern Mesopotamia: at Tell Mozan many officials could use the same seal (except from Zamena, for whom see also above);
      – on p. 281, n. 1966, a seal purchased by E. Borowski on the antiquity market (no. 587 of the catalogue) is supposed to come from Urkesh.

            Note. The seals/sealings from Tell Mozan presented in this catalogue are nos. 121–121a, 215–216, 342, 366, 429, 536, 621–630a, 649, 650a, 678–680, 702–704, 707.
[mDP]

glyptic: Tupkish
glyptic: Uqnitum
glyptic: courtiers
glyptic: Tar’am–Agade
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Rossi, Marco
2003
“'Drill–holes – Lewis–holes' a Ebla: Evidenze e considerazioni,”
Contributi e materiali di archeologia orientale 9, pp. 223–268.

     In contrast to standard interpretations, and using especially the rich evidence from Ebla, the author suggests that drill holes in large stone blocks served to anchor pegs and ropes used in dragging the stones and setting them in place within their respective masonry.
manufacturing
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Roux, Georges
1964
Ancient Iraq.
Penguin.

     A plain, but thorough, introduction to the historical development of ancient Syro–Mesopotamia. It has been kept updated in several successive editions.
history
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Sallaberger, Walther and Aage Westenholz
1999 Mesopotamien. Akkade–Zeit und Ur III–Zeit.
OBO 160/3,
Fribourg, Göttingen: Academic Press, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
[herausgegeben von Pascal Attinger and Markus Wäfler].
Pagina Web

      This double–author book offers an overview on the history of Mesopotamia during the Akkadian and Ur III periods.
      Chapter 1 (by A. Westenholz) deals with the political history of the Old Akkadian period: after an introduction, the author introduces the chronology and the history from the prelude of the empire to the fall of Akkad; moreover, she explains aspects of society, literature, religion, art, internal and foreign relations.
      Chapter 2 (by W. Sallaberger) focuses on the Ur III period: after having displayed the beginning of the Third Dynasty of Ur, the author presents the historical framework (from Ur–Namma to Ibbi–Suen), the figure and role of the king, and the organization of the state; afterward, he offers information about the documentation, the sealing practices, the calendar and the archaeological findspot and contexts of the main sources (this section is also enriched with four appendixes about textual document).
      Chapter 3 includes abbreviations and indexes.
Urkesh is specifically referred to in four spots:
      – on p. 48, n. 157, where Westenholz includes Tell Mozan as one of the most typical and important Old Akkadian archives (quoting the publication of the texts in Milano 1991);
      – on p. 59, the author recalls how in Upper Mesopotamia there were local kings defined as endan, a Hurrian title attested on seals (as for this topic, Westenholz mentions, in n. 239, to the seals/sealings from Urkesh, referring to Buccellati and Kelly–Bucellati 1996; on the same page, also Tišatal of Urkesh is mentioned as one of these endan, who commissioned the first Hurrian inscription (see below, p. 74, n. 350);
      – on p. 72, n. 345, the author mentions the children nurse um–me–da attested on seals from Urkesh, dating to the reign of Tupkiš (a reference to Buccellati and Kelly–Buccellati 1996, pp. 21ff. is established);
      – on p. 74, n. 350 Westenholz quotes the Tišatal inscription in these regards: “The earliest Hurrian texts, the inadequately published inscriptions of Tish–adal of Urkesh (see Parrot and Nougayrol 1948; Muscarella 1988; Collon, D. 1987, First Impressions. Cylinder Seals in the Ancient Near East, London, p. 40) are probably a trifle later than Sargonic”.
      Urkesh is also located on the folding map attached to the volume.
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history
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Schmandt–Besserat, Denise
1977 “An Archaic Recording System and the Origin of Writing,”
Syro–Mesopotamian Studies 1/2, pp. 31–70 (pp. 1–32 of the individual monograph).

     The first monograph (published by Undena Publications under the sponsorship of IIMAS) that launched her series of studies on the tokens.
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history
archaeology
1992 Before Writing.
Austin: University of Texas Press.

     The complete documentary publication of the tokens, with full documentary apparatus: link.
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cited 1 2 3 4
history
archaeology
2007 When Writing Met Art.
Austin: University of Texas Press.

     A slender volume, the latest in the series on the tokens and writing, it explores the impact of literacy on visual art, and, conversely, of artworks on writing. Even though it is stronger in the exegesis of individual pieces than on matters of theory, and even though it does not take sufficiently into consideration the critique of her earlier work (see in particular Lieberman and Michalowski), this essay is of interest for a consideration of those modes of thought that are co–terminous with the development of writing.
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history
art
style
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Schroer, Silvia (ed.)
2006 Images and Gender. Contributions to the Hermeneutic of Reading Ancient Art.
OBO 220,
Fribourg, Göttingen: Academic Press, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Pagina Web

      This miscellaneous volume collects contributions about the topic of the interpretation of Near Eastern visual art, mostly for what concerns the study of the gender. It is subdivided into four sections, briefly summarized below.
      Section 1 (“Setting the Field”) presents contributions about status and gender in Sumerian and Akkadian art (J.M. Asher–Greve), women in Theban tombs of the New Kingdom (S. Bickel), gender and iconography within a biblical perspective (S. Schroer).
      Section 2 (“Gender, Nakedness, Nudity”) offers papers about nakedness and nudity in Egyptian and Mesopotamian art (J.M. Asher–Greve and D. Sweeney), analysing nudity in Old Babylonian art (J. Assante), nudity in Greece (A. Stähli), female nudity in classical Athens (U. Kreilinger), hysteria and metaphors of uterus in classical antiquity (V. Dasen and S. Ducaté–Paarmann).
      Section 3 (“Status and Power: Royal Women”) includes topics such as representation of queens in Ur III period (F. Weiershäuser), images of queens of Kush (A. Lohwasser), depictions of Roman empresses (T.S. Scheer).
      Section 4 (“Status and Power: Mothers and Priestesses”) presents themes related to mothers and caregivers on Neo–Assyrian reliefs (I. Schwyn), mothers and sons in Athens and Pergamon (R. Linder), Greek grave stelas of priestesses (A.B. Sánchez).
Urkesh is directly mentioned in the following occurrences:
      – on p. 57, where it is said that texts from Tello, Ur, Ebla and Urkesh testify a special status for (wet)nurses;
      – on p. 65–65, the author recalls the importance of Zamena at the court of Urkesh, presenting some of her sealings (quoting Buccellati and Kelly–Buccellati 1995–1996, for their images, and Buccellati and Kelly–Buccellati 2002, pp. 11–13, for their dating [this two works are also quoted on p. 62, about sealings of women]).
[mDP]

gender
glyptic: Tupkish
glyptic: Uqnitum
glyptic: courtiers
glyptic: Tar’am–Agade
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Stanley Price, Nicholas
1995
“Excavation and Conservation,”
in N. Stanley Price (ed.), Conservation on Archeological Excavations,
Rome: ICCROM.

     A programmatic document for both “immovable” and movable items.
cited
conservation
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Starr, Richard F.S.
1939
Nuzi.
Report on the Excavations at Yorgan Tepa Near Kirkuk, Iraq conducted by Harvard University in Conjunction with the American Schools of Oriental Research and the University Museum of Philadelphia, 1927–1931.
Vol. I: Text. Volume II: Plates and Plans.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Vol. I (text): Pagina Web
Vol II (plates and plans): Pagina Web

      These two volumes offer the publication of the excavation seasons 1927–1931 conducted at Nuzi by the joining mission of the Harvard University, the American Schools of Oriental Research and the University Museum of Philadelphia.
      Volume I is divided into two parts, the former dedicated to the architecture and the latter to the objects.
      The first part is subdivided into eleven chapters, dealing with the following topics: 1) prehistoric period at Kudish Ṣaghīr and Yorgan Tepe; 2) GA.SUR and Early–Nuzi period; 3) architectural elements at Nuzi, displaying the various structures of the town; 4) temples of the Nuzi period (with an insight on post–Nuzi occupation); 5) palace of the Nuzi period (with the related pre– and post–strata); 6) the North–western Ridge of Nuzi; 7) the South–western section of Nuzi; 8) the North–eastern section of Nuzi; 9) Nuzi’s city wall and related buildings; 10) Nuzi’s suburban dwellings (with the houses of Tehip–Tilla, Shurki–tilla, Shilwi–teshub and Zigi); 11) burials at Nuzi, divided in adult and infant burials.
      The second part consists of four chapters, according to the same chronology displayed in the first part: 1) prehistoric objects; 2) GA.SUR period finds; 3) nuzi period artefacts; 4) Late–Period or doubtful–period materials. All the finds are subdivided into sections on the base of material (including also organic ones).
      Eight appendixes are attached at the end of the first volume: A) chronology (by H.W. Eliot); B) chemical and microscopic examination of the green glazed (by R.J. Gettens); C) Nuzi and Late–Period baked bricks; D) epigraphic evidences of the material culture of the Nuzians (by E.R. Lacheman); E) the later cultures at Yorgan Tepe; F) late cemetery crania (the last two by R.W. Ehrich); G) the pottery from Pit L4 at Yorgan Tepe, of prehistoric and GA.SUR levels (by R.S. Chute); H) the pottery from Kudish Ṣaghīr (by H.W. Eliot).
      Volume II displays plates and plans.
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Steymans, Hans Ulrich
2010 Gilgamesch: Ikonographie eines Helden,
OBO 245,
Fribourg: Vanderhoeck & Ruprecht Göttingen.
Pagina Web

      This volume collects contributions (both in German and in English) from eleven scholars, all regarding the iconography and the widespread diffusion of the image of Gilgamesh in different areas.
      The two opening chapters are written by the editor (H.U. Steymans): the first one is devoted to an introduction to the epic of Gilgamesh and to the iconography of the hero; the second, more theoretical chapter deals with the general concept of “iconography”, under a methodological perspective”, quoting mostly theories of Winckelmann, Goldschimdt, Brunn, Springer and Keel.
      The third chapter (by R. Opificius) focuses on the representation of both Gilgamesh and Enkidu on different supports (monumental art, glyptic, sherds), from the Paleo–Akkadian to the Neo–Assyrian period.
      The fourth chapter (by W.G. Lambert) analyses the figure of Gilgamesh in literature and art of the Second and First millennia BC, presenting the most important episodes of Gilgamesh’s saga in comparison with their representations, so crossing texts with iconography.
      The fifth chapter (by D. Collon) deals instead with giants, starting from E. Porada studies on these figures on seals, and moving to a discussion about the different depictions of the giant Humbaba on seals, scarabs and metal objects.
      The sixth chapter (by C. Mittermayer) presents a diachronic comparison of literary texts in different languages regarding the Cedar Forest episode, focusing on the transformation of the figures of Gilgamesh and Enkidu within the Sumerian and Akkadian literature.
      The seventh chapter (by D. Frayne) summarises the many instances of the representation of Gilgamesh on the glyptic of the Old Akkadian period.
      The eight chapter (by U. Seidl) offer an overview on a group of Old Babylonian terracotta plaques analysing different episodes of Gilgamesh’s saga, mainly focusing on the journey to the Cedar Forest.
      The ninth chapter (by T. Ornan) presents a possible reconstruction of the diffusion of Gilgamesh’s tales to the area of North Syria and Israel/Palestine: extant the absence of any written record of First millennium West Semitic writing, and taking into account a possible oral transmission of the tales, the author tries to reconstruct the development of those stories through the analysis of the contemporary visual records of same specific scenes.
      The tenth chapter (by M.–A. Ataç) analyses the representations and resonances of Gilgamesh in Neo–Assyrian art, comparing some scenes from the tales with Neo–Assyrian reliefs.
      The eleventh chapter (by H. H. Steyman) retraces the paths of the diffusion of Gilgamesh’s saga on the Levantine coast, considering also the influence on the Iliad, the Odyssey and on Genesis, analysing both texts and visual depictions.
[mDP]

Gilgamesh
iconography
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Tufte, Edward R.
1983 The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.
Cheshire (Connecticut): Graphics Press.

     The work by Edward R. Tufte, especially as reflected in his classic book on Visual Display of Quantitative Information, develops a full theory about the visual organization of data in tabular format. It is based on a careful analysis of a large repertory of examples, which illustrate the pertinent historical background (with even a reference to maps displayed on clay tablets, p. 20). The discussion does not develop the theme of non–linearity, which is of interest to us, but it is implicit in the very emphasis on the "density" of data (chapter 8) that can be represented in such a fashion.
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Veenhof, Klaas and Jesper Eidem
2008 Mesopotamia. The Old Assyrian Period.
OBO 160/5,
Fribourg, Göttingen: Academic Press, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
[herausgegeben von M. Wäfler].
Pagina Web

      This co–author volume displays the history and society of Mesopotamia during the Old Assyrian period.
      Chapter 1 (by K.R. Veenhof) deals specifically with the Old Assyrian period, presenting the definition itself, the chronology, the sources, the history of the research and previous studies (thematically ordered), a short history (focusing also on the Anatolian scene), commercial treaties, Anatolian terminology about trade.
      Chapter 2 (by J. Eidem) focuses on the kingdome od Apum, located on the Old Assyrian route.
      Chapter 3 includes the indices.
      Urkesh is specifically dealt to on pp. 303–304, in a passage that for his specific information deserves to be quoted verbatim:
      “Recent excavations have made it certain that Urkiš is identical with Tell Mozān near modern Amouda [n. 94: reference to Buccellati and Kelly–Buccellati 1996]. The Mari texts document a king Terru, and that the town in this period was under some order of control from Ašnakkum. For the period of the Leilan texts it seems likely that the king of Urkiš was a certain Jaṣṣib–Hatnû. He is mentioned in two letters sent from Sangara, who quotes a message from Jaṣṣib–Hatnû: ‘I have evacuated (my territory) to Urgina’ (YTLR 143). In another letter it is reported that a messenger has gone to Jaṣṣib–Hatnû and the king of AšKakum [sic] to get help against Halu–rabi (YTLR 144) […]. In spite of the forms the two towns are probably identical with Urkiš and Ašnakkum. A letter to Till–Abnû from Janṣi[b–. . . . ] (YTLR 33), but with no real clues to the writer’s identity, may have issued from the king of Urkiš. Without further evidence a precise evaluation is precarious, and we cannot assign firm roles to many of the prominent figures associated with these towns. Significantly shipments are made by ‘elders’ from Amursakkum, Tehhi, and Urkiš, and the traditionally strong position of the local assembly in the latter town is well attested from the Mari evidence. The heterogenous local traditions are also evident in the case of Nawali, where the prestige of the Adad/Tessup cult gave its clerics special prominence”.
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history
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Vico, Gianbattista
1744 Principj di scienza nuova d’intorno alla comune natura delle nazioni.
Napoli.

     Known as Scienza nuova terza, this is the third and final edition of Vico's work (the first edition goes back to 1725). It marked a milestone not only for historiography, but also for archeological theory. It deals on the one hand with the philosophical issue of epistemology, establishing the fundamental unity of factuality and meaning; on the other, with the methodology through which we can critically evaluate the most distant past. In this he argues against the double arrogance of scholars and nations, whom he accuses of falsely aggrandizing the archaic periods. To these periods he attributes instead a different kind of greatness, that of profound poetic imagination. Seeking to establish his theory ("scienza") on documentary factual grounds, he develops elaborate schemes through which to categorize historical development. While no longer valid in their referential details, these schemes are important because they established the mental framework within which periodization could be argued.
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history
philosophy
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Wäfler, Markus
2001 Tall al–Ḥamīdīya 3.
Zur historischen Geographie von Idamaraṣ zur Zeit der Archive von Mari(2) und Šubat–enlil/Šeḫnā.

OBO, Series Archaeologica 21,
Fribourg, Göttingen: Academic Press, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
[mit Beiträgen von J. Brignoni und H. Paul].
Pagina Web

      In this publication, the author tries to reconstruct a historical geography of the land of Idamaraṣ, basing on documentation of the period of the archives of Mari and Šubat–enlil.
      Sections 3–6 are devoted to the presentation of the topic, underlining problematics and possible errors, mostly caused by the presence in the sources of many homonymous toponyms. The methodology is then presented, applying also statistics and other mathematical issues to avoid (as far as possible) mistakes in interpreting the documentation.
      Section 7 focuses primarily on Idamaraṣ, with the purpose of defining a possible location for this land.
      Urkesh (spelled as Urgiš) is mentioned several times (on pp. 18, 23, 29, 45, 124, 177–178, 188–190; maps 1, 2, 4, 6–12). The most significant quotation is on pp. 177–178, where the author reports all the attestations of the toponym in ancient sources (within the timeframe considered in this book), attaching also useful bibliographical references, mentions of chiefs of Urkesh (only Terru) and displaying the geographical network of this town with other neighbouring entities.
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history
geography
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Wolf, Maryanne
2007 Proust and the squid.
The story and science of the reading brain.

New York: Harper.

     Primarily a biological and cognitive analysis of the process of reading (the title refers to the synergy between novelists and neuroscientists), the book deals at some length with the impact that the introduction of writing had on that process (pp. 24–50).
     Important for us is also the chapter on the development of the alphabet and on Socrates' stance vis–à–vis reading (pp. 50–78). Different drawings render the author's understanding of the "different types of efficiency among languages" (p. 61), in a effort to determine, from a neurological point of view, the claim for greater efficiency of the alphabet.
     [A number of elementary mistakes mar the section on ancient Mesopotamia, e.g., the inexistent cuneiform signs in the drawing on p.32, the misspelling of Rawlinson's name (ibid.), the reference to the Epic of Gilgamesh having been preserved on stone tablets or the misspelling of the scribe's name who wrote them (p. 41).]
     See also the comments in the excursuses on writing and on reading.
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history
biology
neurology
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Zimansky, Paul E.
1993 A review article
of Schmandt–Besserat 1992, Before Writing.
Journal of Field Archaeology 20: pp. 513–517.

     A serious critique, based on the statistical discrepancy between totals of attested tokens and economic importance of the correlative items, e.g., the token for "sheep" occurs only eight times.
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