Unit Book J3


Processed on 2024-05-25


Roster Date Author Record
Category 2009-02-08 jW organic [Input: T208JW.j]
Best definition 2009-02-08 !! human body [Input: T208JW.j]
Best image 2008-01-22 jW [Input: S122JW.j]



Roster Date Author Record
Definition 2009-02-08 jW human body [Input: T208JW.j]



Roster Date Author Record
Daily notes about recovery of elements 2006-08-24 lr i8 was stored in the object room and yesterday was moved into the osteology lab. Two boxes were recovered, one containing the skull wrapped in aluminum foil with the post-cranial skeleton placed in a separate box. I began with the skull and removed the foil carefully which exposed a partially articulated skull with the right side still embedded in soil. The skull exhibits severe postmortem cracking that crushed the skull (medial-laterally) but retains shape, allowing for the skull to be consolidated in the lab. A diluted mixture of primal was applied to the entire skull and two days were spent articulating and removing the skull. The soil is hard with small fragments of charcoal, burnt clay, and small stones. Based on the skeleton examined thus far, it appears that the bones were heated at a low temperature due to the presence of heightened bone cracking and a brown coloration however the bones are not warped. Heat exposure to produce this type of bone change is estimated below 200-300 degrees centigrade in Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994 Standards volume. Accidental or intentional firing in the vicinity of the body after burial remains a plausible assumption or the bone condition may be due to the soil matrix or other environmental conditions. While removing the soil around the skull, the cervical vertebrae were recovered around the neck region and were found displaced postmortem. Several maxillary and mandibular teeth (primarily the incisors) were found under the mandible, possibly moved by rodents. On the right side of the cranium, two hand phalanges were found (medial and distal) indicating that the head was lying on at least one finger. [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]

Volumetric Localization

Roster Date Author Record
Locus 2005-08-28 gM k104 [Input: P904GM2.j]

Contact Association

Roster Date Author Record
Type of contact: contemporary events/movable items 2005-08-28 gM i8 (human body) sits in f60 (burial) [Input: P904GM2.j]

Spatial Aggregation

Roster Date Author Record
Aggregate (to which element belongs) 2005-08-28 rE a1 (burial) [Input: P904GM1.j]
q-lot with which item is associated 2005-08-28 gM q101 (pottery) [Input: P904GM2.j]

Time Sequencing

Roster Date Author Record
Stratum (to which element belongs) 2012-09-09 !! s860bJ3B [Input: W909JW.j]
Phase (to which element belongs) 2012-09-09 !! h2mJ3B [Input: W909JW.j]
2012-10-07 !! f59 (fill) [Input: WX07JW.j]
2012-10-07 !! f60 (burial) [Input: WX07JW.j]
2012-10-07 !! f61 (b) [Input: WX07JW.j]
2012-10-07 !! f62 (isolated individual brick) [Input: WX07JW.j]
2012-10-07 !! f364 (fill) [Input: WX07JW.j]
2012-10-07 !! f365 (pit-c) [Input: WX07JW.j]


Items Field Record

Roster Date Author Record
Field definition 2005-08-28 gM hb [Input: P904GM2.j]
Field color 2005-08-28 gM brown [Input: P904GM2.j]
Notes on field record 2005-08-28 gM human bones from burial (a1) [Input: P904GM2.j]


Analogical Record

Roster Date Author Record
View/drawing of item

2005-08-31 gM [Input: P904GM5.j]

2005-08-31 gM [Input: P904GM5.j]

2005-08-31 gM [Input: P904GM5.j]

2005-08-31 gM [Input: P904GM5.j]

2005-08-31 gM [Input: P904GM5.j]

2005-08-31 gM [Input: P904GM5.j]

2006-02-12 jW [Input: Q212JW.j]

2006-05-03 jW [Input: Q503JW.j]


Roster Date Author Record
Storage 2007-08-15 eI in Physical Anthropology [Input: R815EI.j]



Roster Date Author Record
Definition 2006-08-24 lr hs [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Minimum number of individuals 2006-08-24 lr 1 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Curation status 2006-08-24 lr Processed, in osteo lab [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]


Roster Date Author Record
Biological sex 2006-08-24 lr Fe [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Data on sex determination 2006-08-24 lr Sex was estimated as female via a series of sexually morphological characteristics of the skull and pelvis with the skull showing a typical mixture of male and female traits common of the Mozan skeletons while the pelvis exhibited all female traits. The skull was found gracile, slightly protruding glabellar profile, medium/large mastoid process, obtuse mandibular angle, and a straight or perpendicular mandibular border. The pelvis was found very gracile and broad. The illiac blade flared laterally, very wide greater sciatic notch, narrow and small auricular surface, prearicular sulcus present, short/thin pubic symphysis, ventral arc present, sub pubic concavity present (very concave), sharp medial ischio-pubic ridge and small ischial tuberosity were noted. Based on the high degree on female traits of the pelvis, sex was determined as Female. [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Biological age 2006-08-24 lr ad [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Data on biological age 2006-08-24 lr Age was estimated using Miles attrition scheme (1962) with a range of 28-35 years of age, ectocranial vault suture closure (Meindl and lovejoy 1985) at 24-75 (mean age 45.2), ectocranial lateral-anterior suture closure (Meindl and lovejoy 1985) at 25-49 (mean age 36.2), pubic symphysis (Suchey and Brooks) at advanced stage 4 within age range 26-70 (mean age 38.2), auricular surface (Lovejoy et al 1985) between phase 5-6 with an age range of 40-49. Total methods give an average age range of 28.6- 56 years however based on the attrition which shows little wear on the teeth, I am inclined to favor the attrition scheme method as a more probable indicator of age. [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Methods used for biological age determination 2006-08-24 lr ml, mi, sb, lj [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Estimated Stature 2006-08-24 lr 5'2- 4'8 or 158-147cm [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Method used for stuture 2006-08-24 lr Stature was estimated using the left radius (209mm) through Trotter and Gleser (1958) regression formula for White females (4.78(20.9)+54.93+/-4.24) at range 158.24-149.76 (minus 0.06 for age adjustment) and Black Females at 2.75(20.9)+94.51+/-5.05) at range 157.4-146.94 (minus 0.06 for age adjustment). Taking the maximum and minimum of both these ranges, i8 stature ranges 5'2- 4'8 or 158-147cm. [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]


Roster Date Author Record
Trauma type 2006-08-24 lr cm @vertebra lumbar [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
2006-08-24 lr pitting @pubic bone [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Trauma location 2006-08-24 lr 20 08 14 pubic symphysis [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
2006-08-24 lr 20 12 lumbar vertebra [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Trama description 2006-08-24 lr Pitting @pubic bone-Trauma was noted on the right pubic symphysis on the distal end showing bone remodeling and notched inwards in comparison to the left pubic syphysis. A study on pelvic scarring from the Hamann-Todd collection by Anderson (1988) found that pelvic pitting occurs in loosely articulated pelvic bones which allow too much flexibility, increasing the risk of trauma to the pubic symphysis. Females tend to have broader and more flexible hips that may attribute to more frequent cases of pelvic pitting. Anderson also adds that certain activities may factor into increasing the presence and severity of pits, these include; occupation involved with heavy and frequent strain, childbirth, chronic obesity, habitual squatting, and trauma. i8 was found to have a broad pelvis and given the location on the distal end of the pubic bone along with the high amount of stress on the body noted on the rest of the skeleton, this individual probably suffered from either direct trauma to the bone or from muscular strain that tore the ligaments of which may be due to childbirth. It is also interesting to note that the only object recovered with this burial was found under the right pelvis, a wedge shaped stone tool. [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
2006-08-24 lr cm @lumbar vertebra. One lumbar shows trauma, compression on the right anterior surface with osteophytes on the inferior border. This has caused the vertebral body when viewed with the inferior end up to have a flattened. Compressed vertebrae are a result of either trauma to the spine or increased stress on the back. [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]


Roster Date Author Record
Pathology type 2006-08-24 lr eh [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
2006-08-24 lr ob [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
2006-08-24 lr ot [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Pathology location 2006-08-24 lr Cervical (C2) 12 right side, cervical (C5) 12, thoracic 21, T1 13, lumbar 21 border [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
2006-08-24 lr left navicular, distal phalanx of big toe (side unknown), left captiate, left metarcarpel three, right trapezium [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Pathology description 2006-08-24 lr Osteophytosis of the vertebrae were also noted. C2 (neck) shows porosity and localized osteoarthritis on the anterior surface, right side. C5 has increased perosity and lipping on the anterior surface with a depression on the vertebral surface similar to shmorles node. One thoracic vertebra shows shmorles nodes on the inferior side. T1 has lipping and perosity on the posterior surface, with a number of the vertebral bodies exhibiting perosity around the borders. [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
2006-08-24 lr The post-cranial skeleton was found in poor condition, especially the joint surfaces. Of those that were recovered the left navicular shows eburnation and perosity on the distal cuneiform joint and the distal phalanx of the big toe (side unknown) shows an increased bone growth on the plantar surface. The eburnation on the navicular would have caused discomfort and pain during locomotion with plantar surface bone growth on the big toe suggestive of increased pressure on the foot that correlates with the navicular eburnation. On the hands, the left capitate at the scaphoid articulation shows a small remodeled area and the left third metacarpel at the styloid process also shows a remodeled surface. These are bones in the wrist indicating that the left wrist was stressed while on the right side, the trapezium at the first metacarpel joint surface (for thumb) exhibits lipping. One can infer that this individual was engaged in habitual movement of the left wrist and right thumb as evident from bone wear. [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
2006-08-24 lr The teeth are in excellent condition showing low to medium calculus buildup and medium periodontal disease. Enamel hypoplasia was noted on the majority of the teeth, most sever on the mandibular molars and premolars. Enamel hypoplasia is a nonspecific disease often attributed to nutritional stress during tooth development. Dental wear is minimal with all first molars showing the greatest wear. The right mandibular premolars, canine, and second incisor show wear on the buccal surface associated with activity external to chewing and may be an occupational stress such as using the teeth for weaving. The aveolar bone around the right third molar on the maxilla shows infection, with M3 in the process of being lost at time of death. [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]


Roster Date Author Record
Stress location 2006-08-24 lr ulnar tuberosity right side, right radial tuberosity [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Muscle stressed 2006-08-24 lr su, bb [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Muscle activity 2006-08-24 lr supination of forearm, flexing forearm [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Notes on MSM stress 2006-08-24 lr The right ulna has a prounounced ulnar tuberosity that correlates with the right radial tuberosity. These areas are the insertion points of the brachialis muscle that flexes the forearm. The supinator muscle areas were also noted as robust, with this muscle responsible for supinating the forearm. Muscular skeletal markers support the bone wear found on the wrist and thumb. [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]


Roster Date Author Record
Frontal 2006-08-24 lr right 03, left 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Parietal 2006-08-24 lr right 03, left 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Occipital 2006-08-24 lr 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Temporal 2006-08-24 lr right 03, left 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Sphenoid 2006-08-24 lr right 03, left 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Zygomatic 2006-08-24 lr right 03, left 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Maxilla 2006-08-24 lr right 03, left 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Mandible 2006-08-24 lr right 03, left 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Nasal 2006-08-24 lr right 03, left 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Lacrimal 2006-08-24 lr right 03, left 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Concha 2006-08-24 lr right 03, left 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Hyoid 2006-08-24 lr 01 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Ethmoid 2006-08-24 lr 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Vomer 2006-08-24 lr 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Scapula 2006-08-24 lr 20 02, 19 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
2006-08-24 lr right 01, left 01 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Clavicle 2006-08-24 lr right 02, left 01 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Humerus 2006-08-24 lr right 02, left 02 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Radius 2006-08-24 lr 20 03, 19 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Ulna 2006-08-24 lr 20 03, 29 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Ischium 2006-08-24 lr 20 02, 19 00 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Pubis 2006-08-24 lr 20 02. 19 02 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Femur 2006-08-24 lr 20 02, 19 01 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Patella 2006-08-24 lr 20 03, 19 01 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Tibia 2006-08-24 lr 20 01, 19 00 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Fibula 2006-08-24 lr 20 02, 19 00 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Ribs 2006-08-24 lr 02 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Talus 2006-08-24 lr 20 00, 19 00 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Calcaneus 2006-08-24 lr 20 00, 19 00 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Cuboid 2006-08-24 lr uk 01 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Navicular 2006-08-24 lr 20 00, 19 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Cuneiform 1 2006-08-24 lr 20 00, 19 00 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Cuneiform 2 2006-08-24 lr 20 00, 19 00 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Cuneiform 3 2006-08-24 lr 20 00, 19 00 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Metatarsal 1 2006-08-24 lr 20 03, 19 00 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Metatarsal 2 2006-08-24 lr 20 03, 19 00 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Metatarsal 3 2006-08-24 lr 20 03, 19 00 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Metatarsal 4 2006-08-24 lr 20 03, 19 00 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Metatarsal 5 2006-08-24 lr 20 03, 19 00 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Phalanges 2006-08-24 lr total twenty, mixed hand and foot [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Lunate 2006-08-24 lr 20 00, 19 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Triquetrum 2006-08-24 lr 20 00, 19 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Pisiform 2006-08-24 lr uk 01 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Trapezium 2006-08-24 lr 20 03, 19 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Capitate 2006-08-24 lr 20 00, 19 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Hamate 2006-08-24 lr 20 03, 19 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Metacarpel 1 2006-08-24 lr 20 02, 19 00 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Metacarpel 2 2006-08-24 lr 20 03, 19 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Metacarpel 3 2006-08-24 lr 20 03, 19 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Metacarpel 4 2006-08-24 lr 20 00, 19 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Metacarpel 5 2006-08-24 lr 20 00, 19 03 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Cervical vertebrae 2006-08-24 lr seven total, 02 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Thoracic vertebrae 2006-08-24 lr eight bodies, 02 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Lumbar vertebrae 2006-08-24 lr three bodies, 02 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Sacrum 2006-08-24 lr five unidentified possible sacrum, 01 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Manubrium 2006-08-24 lr 00 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Sternum 2006-08-24 lr 00 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]


Roster Date Author Record
Condition of skeleton 2006-08-24 lr pr [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Condition of teeth 2006-08-24 lr gd [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Convervation notes 2006-08-24 lr The cranium is in good condition after being consolidated with diluted primal soultion however it was badly crushed in the ground, particularly the right side. I decided to leave the soil inside the cranial cavity to preserve the shape of the skull since removing the soil would cause the skull to collapse. In doing so, this may increase further cracking but hopefully the consolidant should minimize this. The mandible was also consolidated but could not stabilize it completely and was removed in three large pieces; it is also in good condition. The post cranium suffered badly from post mortem crushing and there is also evidence of rodent activity on one vertebral body which many have damaged more of the skeleton. The right proximal humerus was found completely crushed flat. Only fragments remain of the majority of the skeleton but the left radius and ulna were recovered complete and where used to estimate stature. Other areas of the skeleton were cleaned with diulted alcohol with water using a small paint brush. [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]


Roster Date Author Record
Burial type 2006-08-24 lr ot [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Body position 2006-08-24 lr ss [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Body orientation 2006-08-24 lr east to west [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Body facing 2006-08-24 lr north [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Skull facing 2006-08-24 lr north [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Items found with body 2006-08-24 lr i10 stone tool under right illium [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Time period 2006-08-24 lr prepalace [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Phase 2006-08-24 lr uk [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Notes on burial context 2006-08-24 lr Skeleton i8 was found in thick packing material north of the large stone wall of the temple terrace. The body was found lying on its right side with the left portion of the skull visible from overhead with skull facing north. The body was oriented east to west, skull in the east with the pelvis to the west. Based on the photographs, the body position appears tightly flexed with the femur flexed sharply towards the skull but not enough to touch the rib cage. The left tibia was found parallel to the left femur with the feet close to the pelvis. No grave goods or pit cut was noted with the exception of a medium size stone tool placed under the left illium/pelvis and several animal bones to the south. It is unclear if the animal bones are related with this burial. [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]


Roster Date Author Record
Max length ulna 2006-08-24 lr 231 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Max length radius 2006-08-24 lr 209 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Max mandibular ramus (ant-post) 2006-08-24 lr 40 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Mandibular condyle 2006-08-24 lr 18 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Max diameter femoral head 2006-08-24 lr 39.3 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Max length of zygomatic 2006-08-24 lr 44.2 [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]


Roster Date Author Record
Anthroplogist's conclusions 2006-08-24 lr Skeletal analysis estimates i8 as a petite female aged 28-35 years at time of death with little tooth wear and several areas of skeletal stress and trauma. The pubis shows pitting and an indentation possibly from pelvic trauma associated with strain. The cervical vertebrae (neck) show osteoarthritis particularly on the anterior inferior surface with evidence of herniated disk cartilage on one thoracic vertebra (presence of Schmorl's nodes). In the lumbar region, one vertebra shows possible trauma to the right side of the spine (anterior) that compressed the vertebra (photo taken). Skeletal stress was also noted on the right hand where the thumb metacarpel articulates with the wrist and the left wrist. This coincides with muscle use of the right forearm that suggests activities involving the wrist and forearm. Dental wear on the lower incisors and canine on the buccal surface suggest occupational activity such as holding leather or string with the teeth that damaged the buccal tooth surface after habitual movement and can also be associated with wrist and hand use. The left foot also shows stress in the form of frequent foot use that caused cartilage around the navicular to degenerate causing bone friction and eburnation. Comparing this skeleton with later Khabur A16.31, also a female aged 26-35 shows that A16.31 also contains osteophytosis of the neck but not as severe as i8 while no other bones showed osteoarthritic changes. Two skeletons from an earlier time period, tentatively dated as Early Dynastic in area F2 show a high degree of premature osteoarthritis of the joint surfaces on young individuals aged between 16-26 years and suggests that occupational stress was responsible. [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]
Outside expert conclusions 2006-08-24 lr Photographs were taken of the skull with the intention of showing them to Dr. Steadman, a forensic anthropologist at SUNY Binghamton for head trauma possibility. The fracture lines are irregular and appear naturally as a reaction to the skull crushed postmortem but should be checked by a specialist [Input: Q824-ZPA.j]